Eesti kõrgharidusmaastik on üsna korrastunud, kui mõelda nt 3+2 õppetööle, akrediteerimistele, kvaliteedikontrollile, teaduse üldisele tasemele, jne. Üks valdkond, kus kujutlused, nõuded, ootused jms on teisenemises, on lõputööde stiil, mis lisaks valdkondlikele erisustele, erineb ka muuhulgas selles, kuidas tudengid ennast väljendavad ja miks nad just nii teevad. Siinviidatu on üks harvaesinev eestikeelne kirjatöö selles valdkonnas. Lugemishuvilisi võiks olla hulgaliselt, alates tudengitest kuni lastevanemate ja üldhariduskooli õpetajateni. Ja veel. Mõnevõrra üllatav, et allikaloend koosnes üsna vanadest allikatest. Tõsi, see on autori otsus, mida siinsjuures ei arvustata. Kuna töös ei ole märgitud, mis on teadustöö, siis jääb mulje, et tudengitöö ongi teadustöö. See on üks võimalik tähendus, kuid … ainult üks.

Kontekstiks:

“Ühelt poolt juhendatakse, et teadustekst peab olema objektiivne ja neutraalne ning autori isik ei tohiks selles esile tõusta (kasik jt 2011: 27–28). Teisalt mööndakse, et teadusteksti jaoks nähakse muu hulgas ette autorile osutamise viisid ning autori enesele osutamist eeldab teadusteksti argumenteeriv iseloom, mis laseb kuuldavale tulla autori arvamusel ja seisukohtadel (kniivilä jt 2007: 14, 95)” (Lemendik, 2022, p. 49)

Juhendid on erinevad. Sisekaitseakadeemia juhend oleks siin võinud olla selles küsimuses isegi eeskujuks.

“Üliõpilastööde vormistamise juhendites eelistatakse umbisikulist tegumoodi, kuid mõnel pool aktsepteeritakse ka esimest ja kolmandat isikut (nt Jürine jt 2013: 13; Tallinna Ülikool 2020: 3; Uuspõld 2011: 14). Teisal soovitatakse mina­vormi siiski vältida (nt Tallinna Ülikool 2019: 12; Tartu Ülikool 2020: 10).” (Lemendik, 2022, p. 49)

Vihje andmestikust ja metoodikast:

“Uuritava materjali kogumaht oli 215 784 sõnet. mahu hulka arvestati üksnes magistritööde põhiosa, välja jäid vormiosa elemendid (sisukord, lisad, resümee, tänusõnad), samuti põhiosas olevad tekstinäited, tsitaadid ja tabelite sisu. Uurimismaterjal kodeeriti käsitsi. esmalt tuvastati kõik asjakohased keelevahendid, seejärel kanti need mS exceli tabelisse, kus kodeeriti iga vahendit iseloomustavad tunnused.” (Lemendik, 2022, p. 52)

Veidi üllatav, kui arvestada ülal esitatud kommentaare juhendites esitatust:

“absoluutarvudes enim (1459) leidus uurimisandmestikus eks­ plitsiitseimat, s.o mina­vormi. Stiilikaalutlustel on autoritel soovitatud mitte kasutada mina­vormi ja sellega vastanduvat umbisikut läbisegi (Reinsalu 2015: 73).” (Lemendik, 2022, p. 53)

Mina-vormist …

“Mina-vormi kasutas 75% autoritest. Seejuures üle­ tasid mina­vormi esinemiskorrad ühes tekstis 200 korra piiri neljal juhul (enim oli see 254), vähim loendatud juhtude arv töö kohta oli 4. ainsagi mina­vormita vormistasid oma töö neli autorit.” (Lemendik, 2022, p. 56)

Lugemishuvi suurendamiseks:

“Teadustekst on konventsionaalne ning väljakujunenud nõuded kehtivad ka selle keelekasutusele. Üks peamisi nõudeid on neutraalsus, millega sageli seostatakse impersonaalsust. Olenemata levinud seisukohast, et mina­vormi kasutamisega tuleks teadustekstides olla ettevaatlik, räägib siinse uurimistöö andmestik keelekasutajate valikute kohta muud.” (Lemendik, 2022, p. 66)

Põhjapanevateks järeldusteks on siiski vara.

“Siinne uurimistöö tõi lisaselgust eestikeelsete teadustekstide autori­ küsimusse puutuva kohta. kuna aga analüüs põhines väikesel käsitsi koostatud korpusel, ei saa tulemuste põhjal teha üldistavaid järeldusi eesti­ keelse teadusteksti kui terviku kohta – selleks tuleb analüüsida suuremaid märgendatud tekstikorpusi.” (Lemendik, 2022, p. 67)

Lemendik, H. (2022). Siinne töö uurib ehk Kuivõrd ja kuidas näitab end eesti teadusteksti autor. In Emakeele Seltsi aastaraamat (Vol. 67, pp. 48–71). Eesti Teaduste Akadeemia Kirjastus. https://kirj.ee/wp-content/plugins/kirj/pub/esa67_2021_48-71_20220628072353.pdf?v=a57b8491d1d8

Artikli pealkiri on küll “kuidas mõista sõda Ukrainas”, kuid igapäevaselt, inimesele kel raske mõista vägivalda üldisemalt, võib pealkiri tähenda ka näiteks “kuidas mõista mõistetamatut”. Teksti tasub lugeda kõikidel, kel veidigi huvi analüütilisele perspektiivile sõjast Ukrainas. Siinviidatu keskendub argumentatsioonis juhtimisvaldkonna argumentatsioonile.

Kontekstiks:

“Like any complex phenomenon, war decisions can be (and have been) explained through different lenses in different disciplines. As I am writing this commentary for the British Journal of Management, I position my observations and arguments in the management discipline. The lens I apply is escalation of commitment.” (Michailova, 2022, p. 1)

Lumepalliefekt. Või ka näiteks bürokraatia. Zygmunt Bauman kirjutab raamatus Modernity and the Holocaust muuhulgas: “But bureaucracy made the Holocaust. […]Bureaucracy contributed to the perpetuation of the Holocaust not only through its inherent capacities and skills, but also through its immanent ailments. The tendency of all bureaucracies to lose sight of the original goal and to concentrate on the means instead – the means which turn into the ends – has been widely noted, analysed and described.”

“In other words, the term describes situations where a decision is made to continue to invest, despite evidence suggesting the investment is unjustified or unwise.” (Michailova, 2022, p. 2)

Argitraagikas on see, mõistmise seisukohast keskne tähelepanek, jäänud üsna varju.

“To understand what we often find and declare not understandable and/or unimaginable, we need to consider that the current war (like any other war) has not emerged in a vacuum.” (Michailova, 2022, p. 2)

See võiks küll lugemishuvi äratada

“The next section summarizes very briefly the last 100+ years in an attempt to illustrate how escalation of commitment evolved in the RussiaUkraine relationship.” (Michailova, 2022, p. 2)

Esilekutsutud näljahäda.

“The years 1932–1933 were marked by a catastrophic manmade Ukrainian famine (known as the Holodomor), resulting in almost four million Ukrainian deaths. This demographic tragedy was engineered by Stalin’s policies of forced agricultural collectivization and a desire to turn the Soviet Union into a global superpower.” (Michailova, 2022, p. 2)

Oluline kõne ja sattumuslikkus.

“On 8 December 1991, Stanislav Shushkevich (then at the helm of the Soviet Republic of Belarus) made a highsecurity phone call to Mikhail Gorbachev (whose mother tongue was Ukrainian and who appointed Shushkevich in the first place), telling his leader that the Union was over. The Union was, indeed, gone – both as a structural and political configuration and as a term.” (Michailova, 2022, p. 3)

Omanditunne.

“It was painful for Russia to lose Crimea and Ukraine in broader terms in 1991. Giving up 13 Soviet republics and 35% of their territory must surely have hurt, but losing Ukraine – which has for centuries been indispensable to Russia’s existence as a great empire – was an entirely different matter. Russian pain was sharp and difficult to bear.” (Michailova, 2022, p. 3)

Vildakad eeldused ja eksimused juhatavad suurema julmuse, mitte mõistmiseni.

“As Mearsheimer, whom I cited above, argues: ‘Mr Putin may have misjudged Russia’s military capabilities, the effectiveness of the Ukrainian resistance and the scope and speed of the Western response, but one should never underestimate how ruthless great powers can be when they believe they are in dire straits’.” (Michailova, 2022, p. 4)

Michailova, S. (2022). An Attempt to Understand the War in Ukraine–An Escalation of Commitment Perspective. British Journal of Management. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-8551.12633

Ajakirja International Journal of Public Sector Management erinumbri külalistoimetajate Frank L.K. Ohemeng ja Tom Christenseni vabalevis olev tekst võiks huvi pakkuda kõikidele inimestele, sest haarab vahetult kõiki inimesi. Mõistagi, kui on mõni, kes on riigist ja valitsemisest puutumata, siis neil oleks huvitav seda teksti ja erinumbrit lugeda veidi teistsuguse vaatega.

Kontekstiks:

The emergence and the frequency of what may be described as monumental crises, such as devasting hurricanes, tornadoes, earthquakes and the COVID-19 pandemic, their impact on human health and economic development and the need to forcefully address them have brought forth or resurrected the idea of the administrative state and its role in governance as broadly defined once again (Lin et al., 2020).

Administratiivriigi kuvandist:

Prior to this, the administrative state had continually been demonized as ineffective, inefficient, incompetent, etc. to the extent that some even had earlier called for its dismantling (Barzelay, 1992; Osborne and Plastrick, 1997; Lobao et al., 2018; Wallison, 2018). This call led to what many scholars have described as the “hollowing out” of the state as a result of policies developed to curtail “the strong arm of the state”, which was described as being too congested and overloaded with policymaking and implementation (Rhodes, 2017; Skelcher, 2000). […] In general, the state’s role in governance shifted dramatically due to actions taken by governments until the COVID-19 pandemic hit.

Euroopa Rekonstruktsiooni- ja Arengupanga raport:

In a report titled: Transition Report, 2020–2021: The State strikes back, the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD) (2021) notes how there is a growing trend of the acceptance of state involvement in national development and the increased expectations that are now being placed on it.

Juurte juurde:

While the notion of the administrative state has been in existence for quite a long time (Dudley, 2021; Lewis, 2021), its modern usage is attributed to Dwight Waldo in a 1948 book with the title the administrative state (Waldo, 1948; Roberts, 2020).

Kitsas käsitlus on liiga kitsas:

The administrative state, however, is more than developing regulations. In this sense, it takes on a broader meaning, and it is this perspective that we follow here. In this sense, the administrative state comprises the entirety of the public sector. It thus denotes the range of public service institutions in the service to the nation. It is, therefore, a large bureaucracy empowered with significant governing authority.

Paremäärmuslaste ideed ei olegi nii uued:

Prior to the launching of the current attempts to deconstruct the administrative state, neoliberal politicians had charged the administrative state with an array of “crimes”, such as failure to perform; abuse of power; repression of employees, clients and people in general and being muddled, confused, expensive, unresponsive, bloated and self-destructive to the extent that it is now seen as a “splendid hate object” that must be reformed or even destroyed (Goodsell, 1983; Caiden, 1991; Peters and Savoie, 1996).

Nähtamatu käsi on üsna nähtav:

In a more recent analysis, the renowned Economist, Joseph Stiglitz (2021) has emphasized what he describes as the proper role of government [administrative state-emphasis ours] in the economy in a post-COVID world. He is of the view that if states are to restore robust economic growth, then it is imperative to note that market forces alone are inadequate to resolve the various issues at hand and that governments must step up to fill this void and play a key role in recovery.

Lugemishuvi suurendamiseks:

However, the recent notion of reconstructing the administrative state through the minimalist approaches has unearthed the folly in the attempt to tame the administrative state (Balz, 2020; Cordelli, 2020; Kettl, 2017). The COVID-19 pandemic has shown us the importance of the administrative state in addressing wicked problem.

Ohemeng, F. L., & Christensen, T. (2022). Guest editorial: Rethinking the state of the administrative state: Is the state back in?International Journal of Public Sector Management35(4), 373-387.

Siinviidatud vabalevis olev tekst leidis oma koha põhjusel, et vaikimise tähendus on sageli alahinnatud nii igapäevaelus, organisatsioonides kui riigi-elanike suhetes nt süüteomenetluses politseitoimingute ajal. Niisiis vaikimine. Tekst võiks huvi pakkuda siiski suurele hulgale lugejatele, kel huvi mõista vaikimisega seonduvat. (vt ka Albert O. Hirschman’i raamatut Exit, Voice, and Loyalty: Responses to Decline in Firms, Organizations, and States)

Kontekstiks:

In Ireland a set of legislative provisions allows for inferences to be drawn in a number of specific circumstances, as fully outlined later. Indeed, the original Irish inference provisions (which have since been extended and amended) pre-dated the introduction of similar provisions in Northern Ireland by four years and in England and Wales by ten years.

Autorid täpsustavad fookust:

In this article we consider three significant aspects of the practical operation of inference provisions at the point of police detention and questioning in Ireland.

Metoodikast:

A multi-method, qualitative research design was used to explore legal professionals’ experiences and perceptions of the right to silence at the pre-trial investigative stage. This involved carrying out two focus groups with a total of 19 criminal defence solicitors and one-on-one, semi-structured interviews with 10 barristers, 11 staff from the Office of the Director of Public Prosecutions, 4 judges and 6 retired gardaí.

Vaikimisest:

The right to silence has been recognised as a constitutional right in Ireland though it is not an absolute right. 12 The same can be said of the protection for the right, often interchangeably referred to as the privilege against self-incrimination, under the European Convention on Human Rights and the jurisprudence of the European Court of Human Rights.

Erinevad praktikad:

As just noted, current Garda practice involves an initial number of interviews with a detained suspect where no warning about the possible drawing of inferences from silence at trial is administered, and then, potentially, one or more interviews in which the relevant legislation is specifically invoked towards the end of a detention period. This contrasts with the position in England and Wales […] In those jurisdictions, the caution accounts for the fact that it might harm the suspect’s defence if they do not mention something at the point of police questioning which they later seek to rely on at trial, and therefore the general inference provision is in play, so to speak, throughout each police interview.

Lugemishuvi suurendamiseks:

While the lack of an updated caution in Ireland may initially have been viewed as a negative aspect of the operation of the inference provisions, in fact this led to the organic development of a process whereby separate, stand-alone inference interviews are conducted toward the end of a detention period. In our view this is significantly preferable, from the perspective of fairness, to the situation whereby inferences can be drawn from any and all suspect interviews. […] Convictions in criminal trials ought not to be lightly reached, and we must ensure that the operation of inference provisions is fair and appropriate in individual cases.

Daly, Y., Dowd, C., & Muirhead, A. (2022). When you say nothing at all: Invoking inferences from suspect silence in the police stationThe International Journal of Evidence & Proof26(3), 249-270.

Küsimused sellest, kes ma olen – inimese või kollektiivina – ja kuidas ma seda tean, tunduvad muutuvat ikka olulisemaks juba põhjusel, et ümbritsev sotsiaalne keskkond muutub ikka mitmekesisemaks. Õigemini küll, see mitmekesisus ilmutab ennast üha selgemalt.

Siinviidatud vabalevis olev tekst võiks huvi pakkuda kõikidele inimestele ning võiks olla “seeditav” ka nendele, kel pole harjumust eelretsenseeritud (teadus! (Sic!)) tekstide lugemiseks.

Agentsusest:

In the broadest sense, the term “agent” refers to those who have the ability to act. Human agency further requires the capacity of rationality and its manifestation.

Kavatsetus:

The interpretation of agency involves a core concept in philosophy of action: intentionality.1 Similarly, at the collective level, the interpretation of collective agency involves a parallel concept: collective intentionality.

Kesksed põhimõtted:

Two notable forms of realism with respect to collective agency are interpretationism (cf. Rovane [2]; Tollefsen [3]) and functionalism (cf. List and Pettit [4]). […] Interpretationism focuses on organizational structures of collectives and believes that these structures guarantee the possibility of rational perspectives on collectives. […] functionalism believes that agency is embodied in the agent’s ability to perform actions that meet certain functional conditions, such as representation, motivation, and rational capacity.

Artikli fookus:

However, in this paper, we focus on the issue of collective intentionality that is on the relation between individual minds and social phenomena.

Suhted – tunnetatavad, kuid siiski raskestimõistetavad

We will not consider a basketball team a new team just because of its members’ changes. Nor will it be considered a new company just because the shareholders of a company are renewed. However, we will be intuitively aware of changes in collective identity due to changes in the internal and external relations of the collective.

Suhete kriitiline roll:

The relations in the collection of relational eventualities thus play a critical role in forming the fixed pattern of collective identity. Only when the pattern undergoes a fundamental transformation will we think that the collective has changed.

Teksti mõistmiseks üks keskseid põhimõtteid relatsioonilisusest:

The reason to say that agency is a relational property is that, in the broadest sense, agency expresses the ability to act as well as the capacity to manifest rationality, that presupposes and refers to the interactive relations between the agent and the external world (action), and indicates the nature of these relations to be manifested (rationality).

Lugemishuvi suurendamiseks:

An individual identifies and acts in a relational identity of a collective through their social relations, thus manifesting collective agency. Collective agency has both internal relations (collective structures) and external relations (collective functions). This confirms that interpretationism and functionalism about agency can be integrated into a relational, holistic account.

Wang, Y., & Stokhof, M. (2022). A Relational Perspective on Collective AgencyPhilosophies7(3), 63.

Siinviidatu leidis oma koha peamiselt kahel põhjusel. Esiteks on tegemist tekstiga, mis võimaldab organisatsioonihuvilistel teha tutvust postfenomenoloogiaga. Teiseks põhjuseks on nähtamatuse ja relatsioonilisuse aspektid, mis on visad igapäevamõttekäikudesse jõudma.

Postfenomenoloogia kohta leiab huviline palju infot internetist, kuid siin raamatus on üks hea kontsentraat erialakirjanduses tuntud tegijatelt. Aga, mis on agentsus? Agentsus on inimese võime ühiskonnas toime tulla (vt nt siit).

Artikkel võiks pretendeerida paljude kursuste seminaritekstiks ning huvi pakkuda väga avarale lugejaskonnale, sest on varustatud paljude igapäevaeluliste näidetega.

Kontekstiks:

How humans live and want to live with technology has been subject to much recent discussion within philosophy (Campbell, 2011; Hörl, 2015; Scharff & Dusek, 2014), sociology (Shaw, 2018; Zuboff, 2019) and organization studies (Beyes, 2017; Curchod, Patriotta, Cohen, & Neysen, 2020; Fleming, 2019; Flyverbom, Deibert, & Matten, 2017).

Agentsusest ja postfenomenoloogiast:

For example, Harcourt (2015, p. 18) describes the spectre of humans living under an expository society; a regime that humans actively desire and to which we ‘give ourselves up in a made frenzy of disclosure’. […] Drawing from the theoretical approach known as postphenomenology (Ihde, 1990; Verbeek, 2011), we argue that human agency is neither destroyed nor radically compromised by technology. […] Based on this assumption, we distinguish and develop postphenomenology as a perspective that can inform organization studies, arguing that it has significant implications for analysis of moral agency.

Autorid annavad tähenduse:

In sum, we take the postphenomenological position that humans are technologically mediated and this mediation is ontologically inherent in our moral agency. Rather than assume symmetry, we hold that the human is the key site of agency but that human agency is also, necessarily, mediated by technology (Verbeek, 2011).

Uurimisküsimus:

How is moral agency mediated through everyday technologies?

Rõhk vahendatusel:

Relative to both sociomateriality and postphenomenology, technology holds a more distinct ontological status within critical realism. Whereas postphenomenology gives specific attention to technological mediations rather than to technologies as ontological entities, and there is no distinction between social and material relations and actions under sociomateriality (Orlikowski & Scott, 2014); the material becomes entwined or imbricated with social relations over time under critical realism (see Leonardi, 2012; cf. Mutch, 2013).

Agentsus on … tingimuslik:

Under postphenomenology, humans do have agency, although this agency is conditional upon our social world: we live in relation to technological mediations but are not subsumed by them (Verbeek, 2012; cf. Harcourt, 2015).

Vahendatus:

In particular, and relevant to our research question, postphenomenology is overtly concerned with moral agency, which it positions as both technologically mediated and co-constructed by users. The mediated subject is the key site not only for moral self-practices and the shaping of humans’ moral choices (Verbeek, 2006, 2008b, 2011, 2012, 2014, 2016) but also for ways in which humans appropriate and give meaning to mediations.

Näide:

The context of academic knowledge production comprises multiple mediations that we explore via four sites: the journal; the article; the author; and the editor and editorial process. […] For instance, it is clear that journal lists play a well-rehearsed role in mediating the moral agency of academic authors by producing and containing their interests, intentions and values (Adler & Harzing, 2009; Macdonald & Kam, 2007).

Tehnoloogia vahendab akadeemilise teadmise loomist:

In sum, technologies mediate academic knowledge production in a number of ways: as promises of objectivity and openness; as barriers to entry (e.g. you cannot submit to this journal without using this software) or other mandatory requirements (e.g. all Elsevier journals are signed to COPE); by being tied to interests and identity work of researchers (referred to as ‘soft impacts’ by Pieters, 2013); by being seamlessly integrated or invisible (Pieters, 2013) (e.g. through autogenerated decision letters personalized by editors and interchangeable with their human counterparts); and by the inscribing of values that affect actors across the domain (e.g. the ubiquitous use, inscription and promotion of journal ‘quality’ lists in academic processes).

Nähtamatus:

Importantly, invisibility is not merely an antonym of visibility as it is more than an absence. Invisibility can be understood as a presence, that which appears not-there-while-it-is-there (Van Den Eede, 2011) or, in words inspired by Merleau-Ponty, ‘the invisible is what is here without being an object’ (Brighenti, 2007, p. 328, his emphasis). […] we propose also that moral agency is shaped by the visibility and invisibility of the means-ends connection of a technological mediation. In sum, the source composition of the mediation (i.e. the interchangeability between humans and technology) and the directedness of the mediation (i.e. the interconnectedness of means-ends) vary with visibilities, and this variation produces different experiences of moral agency.

Moraalsed praktikad kui koostöövili:

Thus, moral practices are coproductions of humans and technologies and moral agency is formed, rather than diminished, in interaction with the influences of technology. Indeed, human ethics proceed from human-technology relations that are by their nature opaque and unknowable (Amoore, 2020).

Lugemishuvi suurendamiseks:

Our postphenomenological approach shows how technologies can mediate our moral subjectification, and how this mediation changes with visibilities associated with positionality and temporality, as we act each day. As indicated by Parker (2013, p. 473, citing Berger, 1966), for example, as an ‘edited editor’ we have the ‘the possibility of stopping in our movements, looking up and perceiving the machinery by which we have been moved.

Greenwood, M., & Wolfram Cox, J. (2022). Seduced by Technology? How moral agency is mediated by the invisibility of everyday technologies. Organization Studies. https://doi.org/10.1177/01708406221107455

Juhtimine ja organisatsioonid on sageli mõtestatud eeskätt just organisatsioonide ja ettevõtluse piires, kuigi nii juhtimine kui organisatsioonid haaravad märksa avaramaid välju. Siinviidatu leidiski oma koha eeskätt põhjusel, et käsitleb juhtimist Ukraina sõja kontekstis. Tekst võiks huvi pakkuda nii organisatsiooni ja juhtimishuvilistele kui üldisemalt valitsemisest, rahvusvahelistest suhetest, kultuurist ja kriitilisest mõtlemisest huvitatutele.

Lugemismõnu suurendamiseks võiks lugemise ajal mõelda muuhulgas sellele, missuguseid pingeid tekst ei puuduta ja – jääb mulje – isegi väldib. Kas tippajakirjas ilmunud tekstis esitatud väited on piisavate tõenditega varustatud?

Kontekstiks:

In the morning hours of 24 February 2022, Vladimir Putin ordered his army to invade the sovereign nation of Ukraine. This full-scale assault on Ukraine’s territorial integrity marks the return of high-intensity conventional warfare involving a major power, not seen in Europe since 1945.

Autor küsib:

The question is what makes 2022 different from these other junctures; and are there any leadership lessons in this?

Lihtsustused:

Although there are some exceptions, the idea of a particular day changing the course of history is rather overblown. Epochal change rarely revolves around a single event but is typically a longer process. Key historical dates, such as 4 July 1776, 14 July 1789, or 9 November 1989, are heuristic shortcuts that mark the moment when the boiling water vaporizes into steam.

Puude taga on siiski mets:

But the events that occurred on them—like the signing of the declaration of Independence or the storming of the Bastille—are merely the climax of longer processes that then continue beyond. The same is true for 24 February 2022: it represents the point in the process where the masks came off and the ambiguity dissipated.

Tõend või hinnang?

If 2014 was heralded as a return of geopolitics, then the idea now is that of a full-swing return of history. Putin’s own biased reading of Ukrainian history—his negation of the country’s specific cultural persona and right to exist as a sovereign nation, tied together by claims that the Russian-speaking populations had to be protected from “Nazis”—featured prominently in his TV appearances prior to the invasion.

Paralleelide otsinguil:

Another type of comparison we have seen is that between Putin and other leaders. The focal image here is that of the fake TIME Magazine—Putin’s head upon which Hitler’s moustache is superimposed. The “Putler” phenomenon emerged already in 2014, when several Western politicians, most prominently Hilary Clinton, 6 ventured into drawing comparison between certain aspects in Putin’s behavior—his incalculability and disregard for international norms—and Hitler’s diplomacy of the 1930s.

Putinismist:

Rather than putting extreme ideology left, right, and center, Putinism exploits this in an opportunistic and, ultimately, cynical manner. […] In reality, Putinism is a hodge-podge of Sovietism, Orthodoxy, Eurasianism, ultra-conservatism, anti-liberalism, New Paganism, antiwokism, warrior cult, corruption, rule by thugs, and kleptocracy (CNN, 2022); all sustained by tight control of the media sphere and an ability to neuter any cognitive dissonance with a judicious mix of conspiracy theory and virtual reality.

Toetajad (kus on allikaviited?):

Putin’s approval ratings among the Russian population show that this war may not be his sole personal affair, but coincide with strictures and structures of Russia as a society.

Lugemishuvi suurendamiseks:

In a tribute to Hannes Adomeit, who died on 25 April 2022, Joachim Krause, Director of the Institute for Security Policy at Kiel University, writes the following: “Unfortunately, this advice (i.e. to expect a more aggressive Russia, and regardless of any action by NATO members, P.S.), like so many others, was ignored by the advisors of the German Chancellor (I am not naming names now), the Foreign Minister, and many other politicians and policy makers, who today are surprised to find that they were wrong about Putin (Krause, 2022).

Sanders, P. (2022). Ukraine 2022, through the leadership binoculars. Leadership. https://doi.org/10.1177/17427150221107265

Henry Mintzberg on üks mõtlejatest, kelle tekste oleks kasulik lugeda ükskõik mis vormis. Kui üldiselt hoidun blogide lugemisest ja nende jagamisest, siis mõned autorid vajavad siiski erikohtlemist, kui on soov kursis olla ja kaasa mõelda.

Siinviidatud Henry Mintzbergi blogipostitus võiks huvi pakkuda kõikidele inimestele, kuigi leidis oma koha põhjusel, et on vahetus puutumuses juhtimisega, mis on siinse lehe üks fookusvaldkondadest. Tekst on tähelepanuväärne ka seetõttu, et on ühtaegu päevakajaline ja aegumatu, lokaalse ja globaalse tähendusega, organisatsioone ja valitsemist haarav ning sellest arusaamine ei vaja mingeid märkimisväärseid eriteadmisi. Lisaks leidub tekstis kasulikke viiteid ja linke ning postitus ei vaja pikki kommentaare.

Lugedes hakkab piinlik. Ka enda pärast.

Kas juhtimine on probleem või lahendus?

We are obsessed with leadership, yet that is what has taken us into the current crisis, and seems incapable of getting us out of it. What if we entertain the unspeakable thought that leadership is the problem more than the solution?

Olukord on uus, kuid tööriistad vanad

Leaving this aside, one leader makes a disastrous decision, and in the face of repeated failure, in a country incapable of correcting him, persists, throwing the entire world into turmoil. […] Deep as this crisis is, I see no reframing, no rethinking, no proposals commensurate with the severity of the situation. Just the same old, same old…

Vihje relatsioonilisusele:

when we say the word “leadership”, we focus on an individual—not us, but him or her. Is there nothing more to changing collective behavior than individual initiative?

Henry Mintzberg (4 June 2022) Surviving leadership

Siinviidatud, kolmest arstist-teadlasest koosneva uurimisgrupi (Saray Stancic, Josh Cullimore, Neal Barnard) publikatsioon ajakirjas American Journal of Lifestyle Medicine, leidis oma koha peamiselt üleeilse ja eilse postituse jätkuna. Internetis leidub raskestihoomatavas mahus informatsiooni nii kliimamuutuste, selle mõjurite kui taimse toitumise kohta. Sageli on info vastuoluline ning allikaviiteid ei ole lisatud. Siinne postitus võiks varustada huvilist eelnevaid postitusi täiendava ja indiviidi perspektiivist vajaliku infoga taimedel põhinevast toitumisharjumusest, mis on ju ka kliimaeesmärkide saavutamisel üheks mõjusamaks vahendiks just indiviidi tasandil.

Selguse huvides märgin, et siinse kodulehe üks peamine eesmärk on juhatada huvilisi tõendite juurde, eemale arvamustest ja emotsioonidest. Igaüks teeb oma valikud ise, kuid ebaadekvaatse ehk tõendamata info põhjal tehtud otsused võivad kaasa tuua ennustamatuid tagajärgi. Enne artikli juurde asumist oleks ehk kasulik tutvuda ka Eestit puudutava statistikaga surmade põhjustest. Tervise Arengu Instituudi uudise visuaalist saab igaüks üsna ühemõttelise ettekujutuse surma põhjustest ning artiklist on võimalik leida praktilisi ennetusmeetmeid.

Kontekstiks:

The fi eld of medicine, despite its prominent in fl uence in society, has invested little to promote healthy lifestyle choices. The consequence of this is re fl ected in our ever-rising chronic disease statistics, most notably obesity and diabetes rates. […] Medical schools, entrusted with the responsibility of educating our future healthcare leaders, have managed to largely bypass the topic of nutrition, arguably the most powerful healthcare intervention known to mankind. In fact, on average, medical schools offer an anemic number of hours of nutrition education over 4 years.

Kehakaal

In a prospective cohort study, which included more than 70 thousand participants, those who consumed a vegan diet could expect to weigh 4.2 kg less than their omnivore counterparts. This very same study went on to conclude that vegetarian diets were not solely of benefit to the scale but were also associated with lower all-cause mortality.

Südame- ja veresoonkonnahaigused

Heart disease remains the leading cause of death in the United States. More than 650 thousand Americans succumb to this leading killer largely fueled by poor dietary choices. […] A pooled analysis of five cohorts found a 24% lower rate of coronary heart disease deaths among vegetarians when compared to omnivores.

Vähk

Cancer remains the second leading cause of death. In a recent British publication, authors reported for those born after 1960, 50% percent could expect to receive a cancer diagnosis during their lifetime. […] Yet, risk reducing behavior modifications which include maintaining an ideal body weight, minimizing alcohol intake, remaining physically active and consuming diets rich in vegetables, fruits, and whole grains, have the potential to reduce risk by as much as 50–70%.

Diabeet

Diabetes is a leading cause of mortality globally. […] Tonstad et al assessed the role different dietary patterns might play in the prevalence of type 2 diabetes, finding vegan and lacto-ovo vegetarian diets were associated with an approximate 50% reduction in risk of type 2 diabetes when compared to nonvegetarian diets. A Harvard study which included participants from three large established cohorts, (the Health Professionals FollowUp Study, Nurses’ Health Study, and the Nurses’ Health Study II) concluded those subjects who consumed a healthy plant-based diet rich in fruits, vegetables, and whole grains, could expect a 34% reduction in type 2 diabetes risk.

Alzheimeri tõbi

The World Health Organization currently reports there are now more than 55 million people living with dementia globally. Dementia is a syndrome characterized by loss of cognitive function, and primarily affects the elderly. […] In a recent publication of two prospective longitudinal studies with nearly 3000 participants, investigators assessed Alzheimer’s risk according to a composite score of healthy lifestyle behaviors including diet, physical activity, not smoking, minimal alcohol, and keeping engaged in cognitive activities. […] Although many questions remain unanswered regarding Alzheimer’s, there is substantive evidence that a plant enriched diet combined with other healthy behaviors can offer significant risk reduction for this menacing disease of which we have no cure or effective management.

Covid-19

This early recognition would be further substantiated six months later in a publication summarizing more than 900,000 COVID-19 hospitalizations in the United States, concluding 60% were attributable to obesity, hypertension, diabetes, or heart failure. […] In Harvard’s smartphone based COVID-19 Study, in which close to 600,000 subjects were enrolled and of which approximately 31,000 developed COVID-19, found that in those who consumed a primarily plant-based diet there was a 41% reduction in risk of severe COVID-19 as well as a 9% reduction in infection of any severity.

Stancic, S., Cullimore, J., & Barnard, N. (2022). Six Applications of Plant Based Diets for Health Promotion. American Journal of Lifestyle Medicine, 16(4), 434–438. https://doi.org/10.1177/15598276221104023

Siinviidatud vabalevis olev tekst saab ilmselt ühe lühima kommentaari osaliseks, sest seda on vaja lihtsalt lugeda. Tekst on lühike ja lööv, emotsionaalne. Kuna ka Eestis on avalikus ruumis ilmunud tekste kõrghariduse küsimustes (eeskätt küll rahastamise aspektist), siis võiks siinviidatu huvi pakkuda kõikidele. Tõsi, tegemist on UK näitega, mis ei pruugi midagi rääkida Eestis toimuva kohta, kuid … mine tea.

Kolm vihjet kontekstiks ja lugemishuvi suurendamiseks:

In the UK, where I work and on which this essay is focused, a 2021 Education Support report surveyed 2,046 university staff: 53% showed signs of probable depression, 62% regularly worked more than 40 hours per week and 59% hesitated to get support for fear of appearing ‘weak’. While some had it better – 3% said they never had to do unreasonable tasks – the overall picture is of considerable overwork and poor mental health and support. […] More recently, when I asked on Twitter if colleagues had experienced bad behaviours, harassment or bullying, one person’s response was ‘might be simpler to ask if you’ve ever had an academic or research job in the UK and not experienced’ it. […] I’ve cried in a bathroom stall on seeing early evidence of miscarriage drip out of me, then returned to a meeting because it would be unprofessional to leave. I spent a year punishing myself for losing a baby because I let work drown out all other primacies, my anxiety-riddled body included. No one at work knew, the first time or the second.

Korica, M. (2022). A Hopeful Manifesto for a More Humane Academia. Organization Studies. https://doi.org/10.1177/01708406221106316