Kaks keskset trendi:

“There are two important trends in European demographics: the birth rate is decreasing, and people are living longer (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development [OECD], 2017).” (Kääriäinen et al., 2022, p. 4)

Keskne küsimus:

“Who should take care of our oldest and most needy parents and grandparents?” (Kääriäinen et al., 2022, p. 4)

Mis on kõige olulisem aspekt elus?

“For several decades, the European Values Study has regularly sought to determine what respondents consider their most important aspect of life. The answer has been constantly and universally the same: family (see: https://www.atlasofeuropeanvalues.eu/maptool.html).” (Kääriäinen et al., 2022, p. 5)

Solidaarsuspõhimõte:

“The latter can be described by the concept of intra-family solidarity (Bengtson, 2001; Bengtson & Roberts, 1991), which includes two main norms: parents should take care of their children and adult children should take care of their ageing parents and grandparents.” (Kääriäinen et al., 2022, p. 5)

Laste suhtumist vanemate hooldamisse käsitlevaid pikiuuringuid on üksikuid:

“Longitudinal research considering changes in attitudes towards filial responsibility (AFR) is surprisingly scarce. Using population-based samples compiled in Southern California from 1985 to 2000, Gans and Silverstein (2006) revealed that AFR decreased over time. Similar results were evident in a study by Hsu et al. (2001), who used population-based samples compiled in Taiwan from 1984 to 1995.” (Kääriäinen et al., 2022, p. 5)

Andmestik ja periood:

“This study used data from 11 European countries collected between 2001 and 2017 to capture the more recent changes in AFR between these time points. Europe has undergone significant demographic and social changes during the first two decades of the 21st century, including population ageing, increased participation of women in the labour market, and significant expansion of the European Union. Importantly, the data used in this study makes it possible to compare changes in AFR between European societies.” (Kääriäinen et al., 2022, p. 6)

Perekonna tähendusväli:

“For example, Reher (1998) views Mediterranean countries as societies with strong family status and Northern and Central European countries as societies where the family status is weak and the individual status is strong. In countries with strong family ties, young adults remain in the same household as their parents for a long time until they marry and start their own families.” (Kääriäinen et al., 2022, p. 7) […] “In countries with weak family ties, young people become independent at an early age and start living independently of their parents before committing to a relationship and starting a family of their own.” (Kääriäinen et al., 2022, p. 7)

Valitsemiskorralduse mõju:

“Individuals in countries with high levels of public services and transfers, such as Nordic countries, are not prepared to commit to strong standards of informal care. However, in Mediterranean and many Eastern European countries, because it is often difficult to obtain public support for coping with caregiving responsibility, it is only natural that the normative pressure to provide informal care increases (Calzada & Brooks, 2013; Marckman, 2017).” (Kääriäinen et al., 2022, p. 8)

Individualismi-kollektivismi skaala:

“In cultures that emphasise collectivism, the family, other nearby communities, or the nation define the status and behaviour of people. In individualistic cultures, on the other hand, people are autonomous and relatively independent of communal norms. Individualistic cultures prioritise the individual’s own goals and aspirations. (Triandis, 2001; Hui and Triandis, 1986)” (Kääriäinen et al., 2022, p. 9)

Naiste tööhõive:

“The goals concerning increasing the employment rate of women have clearly been successful. From the point of view of our research, it is especially interesting to examine the development of the employment rate of women approaching retirement age, because these women are mainly expected to take on increasing responsibility for the care of their own parents.” (Kääriäinen et al., 2022, p. 12)

Lugemishuvi suurendamiseks:

“The main finding was that in 2017 the level of AFR was more negative than in 2001 in 10 countries. Generally speaking, this change seems to apply to both sexes and all age groups. Most drastically, however, the change concerns those who have traditionally borne the greatest responsibility in caring for their ageing parents, namely women in late middle age.” (Kääriäinen et al., 2022, p. 20) […] “Perhaps the most important change affecting the family unit, however, relates to the improved position of women in the labour market. In this respect, the change in Europe over the past couple of decades has been downright dramatic, with developments unlikely to change its course.” (Kääriäinen et al., 2022, p. 20) […] “In many countries, welfare systems are still very family-oriented, with the assumption that the younger generations (in practice, women) are ultimately responsible for taking care of their parents.” (Kääriäinen et al., 2022, p. 21) […] “Several research findings support the idea that the younger generations want to participate in the care of their parents and grandparents in the future. However, the kind of care that people are ready to commit to and the kind of division of labour that is desired among family, public service, and market-based solutions must be determined through a comprehensive study.” (Kääriäinen et al., 2022, p. 23)

Kääriäinen, J., Danielsbacka, M., & Tanskanen, A. O. (2022). Attitudes towards filial responsibility between 2001 and 2017 in Europe. INVEST Working Papers 61/2022, 1–38.

Kontekstiks

“Chiara Cordelli’s impressive book, The Privatized State, offers a comprehensive critique of the privatization of state services, and an ideal theory – broadly inspired by Kant – of how official discretion in public administration could be made democratically legitimate.” (Stilz, 2022, p. 1)

Terminitest: legitiimsus

“Cordelli’s argument focuses on the value of legitimacy, which she understands as a procedural value distinct from the substantive content of political decisions. Cordelli defines legitimacy as a ‘right to make and impose certain decisions on others, and . . . the standing to make those decisions in a way that results in changing the normative situation (the rights and duties) of those subject to them’ (Cordelli, 2020, p. 6).” (Stilz, 2022, p. 1)

Terminitest: legitiimne riik

“Unlike Stuart, the legitimate state is thought to possess the moral standing to determine its subjects’ entitlements. But how, if at all, does the legitimate state differ from Stuart? Kant offers an influential answer: while Stuart’s decisions are merely private exercises of his unilateral will, a legitimate state is a public power that articulates an omnilateral will – a will that is shared by, or is representative of, the members of the community.” (Stilz, 2022, p. 2)

Eeldus õigest vastusest ja teadmine õigest vastusest:

“First, it gets the phenomenology of democracy wrong. When citizens debate law and policy, they see themselves as disagreeing about questions that have right answers. They assume that there are principles of justice – independent of a society’s decisions – that should govern these matters. When citizens debate one another, they address the question of what these independent principles are. They do not see themselves as simply discussing indeterminacies that could be settled in a variety of equally acceptable ways.” (Stilz, 2022, p. 3)

Kui mul on õigus, kas siis ka võim?

“Why is being right not the same as having authority? I would characterize the Kantian answer as follows: part of treating others as independent equals as principles of right most fundamentally require – involves respecting their capacity to form and act on their own deliberative judgments. We should respect people as autonomous deliberators, people who can reason how to govern themselves, in both private and public life.” (Stilz, 2022, p. 4)

Indiviid on vaba oma otsustes ainult selles ulatuses, mis arvestab ka teiste inimeste võrdset õigust samasugusele vabadusele. Kes aga käituvad viisil, mis ei võimalda teistel oma vabadust realiseerida, neil puudub õigus realiseerida ka enda vabadust otsustada.

“It is true that this claim to autonomy has moral limits: people’s capacity to act on their own judgments should be respected only so long as they are willing to reciprocally recognize the equal independence of others. Individuals who are manifestly unwilling to recognize others as independent equals have no valid claim to govern themselves in a way that denies others’ independence.” (Stilz, 2022, p. 4)

Ametnikele antud volitused saab tagasi võtta.

“Rather, we as a political community have given this administrator the power to define certain entitlements, and we could take that power back, if we democratically decided to do so.” (Stilz, 2022, p. 6)

Stilz, A. (2022). Kantian democracy and public administration. Critical Review of International Social and Political Philosophy0(0), 1–8. https://doi.org/10.1080/13698230.2022.2133827

Kontekstiks:

“The World Health Organization (WHO) is among the most important of all international institutions, and its performance attracts much commentary, especially during health crises such as the ongoing COVID19 pandemic or the 2014–16 Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak in West Africa, when WHO was accused of costly failures. Although close attention to its performance is to be expected, it is nonetheless striking how frequently analysts advocate for reform.” (Moser and Bump, 2022, p. 1)

Autorid lubavad:

“In this paper we present the results of our inquiry based on a systematic survey of literature on WHO performance and reform. We employ a framework for analysis that we developed for this purpose based on organizational theory and performance literatures from five disciplines: economics, sociology, political science, management, and psychology.” (Moser and Bump, 2022, p. 2)

WHO osalistering ja kõrge eesmärk:

“As of March 2022, 194 nations are WHO members (World Health Organization, 2022a), supporting its objective—“the attainment by all peoples of the highest possible level of health“ (World Health Organization, 1946).” (Moser and Bump, 2022, p. 2)

WHO sisesed kontrollimehhanismid:

“WHO has several institutional processes to self-assess and advance reforms. It carries out thematic, programmatic and office-specific evaluations through its Evaluation Office (World Health Organization, 2019).” (Moser and Bump, 2022, p. 2)

Hinnangud …

“When we surveyed academic articles, we found they almost never specified any basis for judging WHO, how improvements would be measured, or the detailed logic of how proposals would change WHO’s performance.” (Moser and Bump, 2022, p. 3)

Andmeallikad:

“For our systematic review of global health literature related to WHO’s performance, reform, or governance we used Pubmed, Google Scholar, Academic Search Premiere, and EBSCO Global Health. (Search conducted in November 2018.)” (Moser and Bump, 2022, p. 3)

Lugemishuvi suurendamiseks:

“We find that despite its substantial gaps, the literature offers some tentative suggestions for further investigation, although in none of the categories we defined was there general positive agreement. WHO’s goals and strategies were unclear and in dispute. Its legitimacy and governance were found lacking. Its authority and relationships appeared to be weak and susceptible to non-democratic interference. The structure and performance of WHO seemed to be antagonistic to its mission and its workforce appeared to be overly specialized and inadequately adaptable.” (Moser and Bump, 2022, p. 9)

Moser, F., & Bump, J. B. (2022). Assessing the World Health Organization: What does the academic debate reveal and is it democratic? Social Science & Medicine314, 1–14. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2022.115456

Kontekstiks:

“The seemingly perpetual and universal clamour for an increase in police numbers is a familiar refrain in many parts of the world. Doing so, it is sometimes claimed in certain parts of the media and in political hustings, would enhance public safety and confidence in policing services and reduce crime (Hymas, 2020; Labour Party, 2017). However, a consideration of policing in Finland may cast doubt on this often oversimplified view of police effectiveness. Finland had the lowest number of police officers per capita in Europe in 2017 with 137 police officers per 100,000 people (Eurostat, 2019).” (Laird and Charman, 2022, p. 1)

(Laird and Charman, 2022, p. 1) Politseinike arv ja kuritegevus?!

Finland also scores a low 23.32 on the crime index (Numbeo, 2020). To provide perspective to these figures, Sweden scores 47.07 on the crime index (Numbeo, 2020) and has 198 police officers per 100,000 members of the population, and the Republic of Ireland scores 45.43 on the same index (Numbeo, 2020) and maintains a police force of 278 per 100,000 people (Eurostat, 2019).

Politseipraktikad … paberil:

“According to material produced by the Finnish Ministry of the Interior (2019), the Finnish police employ the practice of ‘soft policing’ (Ministry of the Interior, Finland, 2019).” (Laird and Charman, 2022, p. 2)

Keskne küsimus:

“This article therefore also considers whether a style of policing that focuses upon trust, preventative and cooperative policing can result in something with characteristics similar to a planned procedurally just approach to policing.” (Laird and Charman, 2022, p. 2)

Asjad hakkavad juhtuma:

“Indeed, during a literature review for this article, nothing was found that would suggest that the Finnish police have stated an aspiration to implement a specifically ‘procedurally just’ approach to their tasks. The Finnish approach to policing is to emphasise crime prevention in cooperation with social services and municipalities in preference to a suppression and control form of policing.” (Laird and Charman, 2022, p. 2)

Soome politseid iseloomustavad andmed:

“Finland is currently divided into 11 police departments, ranging from the large and sparsely populated regions of Lapland and Oulu in the north to the considerably smaller, but more densely populated parts in the south such as Helsinki, Western Uusimaa and Eastern Uusimaa (Poliisi, 2019). The Finnish police currently number approximately 7,200 sworn officers and the Finnish population stands at 5.55 million (Official Statistics of Finland, 2022).” (Laird and Charman, 2022, p. 3)

Protseduurilise õiguse tunnused:

“Skogan et al. (2014) provide a definition of procedural justice stating four main points. These are: (1) Neutrality, requiring equality in the treatment of interested parties irrespective of when an event may have taken place; (2) Voice, this is the provision of the opportunity given to all interested parties to express their opinions on events; (3) Trust, those in a position of authority behave in a trustworthy manner and are to treat all interested parties with trust; and (7) Respect, is the requirement for politeness and respect to all interested parties. (Skogan et al., 2014: 324–325)” (Laird and Charman, 2022, p. 4)

Trivaalne, aga …

“For procedural justice to function efficiently there is a need for those in a position of authority, be they police officers or others involved in dispute resolution, to conduct their duties from a position of trust and legitimacy.” (Laird and Charman, 2022, p. 4)

Lugemishuvi suurendamiseks:

“The Finnish approach to policing has elements in common with Bjørgo’s description of crime prevention being a multi-agency challenge involving situational prevention strategies as well as more conventional approaches (2016). This approach may be responsible for a form of ‘accidental’ procedural justice in which the Finnish police appear to operate in a disinterested procedural manner as a pragmatic response to their workload, rather than a conscious application of procedural justice theory in its truest sense.” (Laird and Charman, 2022, p. 10)

Laird, A., & Charman, S. (2022). ‘Accidental’ procedural justice: The Finnish approach to policing. International Journal of Police Science & Managementhttps://doi.org/10.1177/14613557221126488

Kontekstiks ambitsioonist, kuidas muuta politseipraktikad professiooniks:

“In 2012 the Coalition Government created the College of Policing as the professional body for policing. The College was given a mandate to transform policing into a profession (Lumsden, 2016; Holdaway, 2017).” (McCanney et al., 2022, p. 2)

Pragmatism tuleb appi politseiprofessioonist mõtlema:

“This article proposes Pragmatism as an overarching philosophical framework that could underpin the professional knowledgebase. It is a flexible philosophy that can accommodate different research methods, different perspectives and ways of understanding.” (McCanney et al., 2022, p. 2)

Pragmatismi juured:

“The philosophy of Pragmatism developed out of the thinking of Charles Sanders Peirce, William James, John Dewey and George Herbert Mead in the mid-19th century (Simpson, 2018; Kaushik and Walsh, 2019). They did not set out to create a philosophical movement and disagreements amongst them led them to champion different versions of pragmatism (Greene and Hall, 2010; Hookway, 2013).” (McCanney et al., 2022, p. 2) […] “Pragmatists argue that knowledge is fallible, contextual and the basis of a belief on which we are prepared to act (Hothersall, 2018). Therefore, is created and tested within real-world problemsolving (Greene and Hall, 2010; Simpson, 2018).” (McCanney et al., 2022, p. 2)

Domineerib käsitöölismõtteviis:

“Currently policing practice and knowledge is acquired following an ‘on the job’ apprenticeship approach. The accepted view within policing is that policing is best learnt by doing.” (McCanney et al., 2022, p. 3)

Hetkeolukord:

“The College of Policing currently promote evidence-based policing (EBP) as the best approach to building a pro” (McCanney et al., 2022, p. 3) […] “This approach privileges quantitative research methods with randomised control trials promoted as the ‘gold standard’ research approach and, when these are not practicable, other rigorous designs such as quasiexperiments are accepted as valid alternatives to assess police interventions (Mitchell and Lewis, 2017; Ariel, 2019).” (McCanney et al., 2022, p. 3)

Positivistlik perspektiiv:

“This scientific approach is based on a positivistic philosophy that argues that the social and the physical world are both are ‘out there’, external to individual, and that individuals are subject to patterns of deterministic processes that influence their behaviour leading to a series of natural outcomes, similar to natural forces acting on the physical world (Neuman, 2011; Denscombe, 2017).” (McCanney et al., 2022, p. 3)

Interpretivism sekkub vahele:

“These concerns represent an interpretivist account of the world which asserts that the social world is fundamentally different from the physical world, arguing that human beings give meaning and relevance to their social reality, while physical objects and forces do not (Bryman, 2016). Social reality is created and experienced within interactions that are contextualised by historical and cultural factors, whilst at the same time remaining” (McCanney et al., 2022, p. 4) […] “personal and subjective (Creswell, 2009; Bryman, 2016). Interpretive research uses qualitative methodology to capture and understand the meanings and beliefs that individuals employ within these social interactions (Creswell, 2009; Denscombe, 2017).” (McCanney et al., 2022, p. 5)

Kokkupõrge:

“The interpretivist purist rejects the scientific approach as an oversimplification of the complexity of human experience, claiming it demeans notions of individual choice, freedom and morality (Burns, 2000). While proponents of the scientific approach claim that the interpretivist approach is unscientific and presents biased subjective opinion rather than credible evidence (Denzin and Ryan, 2007).” (McCanney et al., 2022, p. 6)

Pragmatism saab võimaluse:

“Pragmatism privileges the question, encouraging the researcher to choose the method most likely to provide an answer, rather than letting epistemological and ontological premises constrain the researcher’s choice (Morgan, 2007; Biesta, 2010; Biddle and Schafft, 2015).” (McCanney et al., 2022, p. 7)

Pragmatism praktikas:

“Pragmatists claim that knowledge is created within problem-solving situations, through an” (McCanney et al., 2022, p. 7) […] “iterative process in which successful outcomes from previous experiences are hypothesised as potential solutions to the current problem situation. Potential solutions are tested, revised, and retested in both a cognitive and a practical process of intelligent reflection (Ormerod, 2006; Ansell, 2016; Kaushik and Walsh, 2019). This is not solely a mental process, it is an active process of thinking, action and reflection, it has a physical element, it is literally ‘something that we do’ (Dewey 1916p367, cited in Biesta 2014 p38).” (McCanney et al., 2022, p. 8)

Enda kogemused maksavad:

“In policing there is an almost universal respect for experience, it is the foundation of most officer decision making (Lee and Punch, 2004; Lumsden, 2016). Research suggests that most police officers, including those in managerial ranks, prefer to rely on their own experience or advice from trusted colleagues over ‘evidence’ provided by academic researchers who have little or no policing experience (Fleming and Rhodes, 2018; Hunter” (McCanney et al., 2022, p. 10) […] “et al., 2019). The domination of craft knowledge is rarely questioned or challenged by police officers” (McCanney et al., 2022, p. 11)

Lugemishuvi suurendamiseks:

“The main motivation for professionalising the police and creating a professional police knowledgebase is that police now operate in a pluralistic and complex society. The police” (McCanney et al., 2022, p. 16) […] “need a body of knowledge that is validated and defensible to replace the idiosyncratic experiential and ‘authority’ knowledge that is the current basis for practice in policing.” (McCanney et al., 2022, p. 17) […] “A consensus on the incorporation of craft knowledge and an adaptation of the existing rank-based hierarchy to replace idiosyncratic experiential and ‘authority’ knowledge as the basis for practice.” (McCanney et al., 2022, p. 17)

McCanney, J., Taylor, J. C., & Morris, K. (2022). Professionalising the police pragmatically. The Police Journal, 1–23. https://doi.org/10.1177/0032258X221128401

Siinviidatu on küll publikatsioon juhtimisvaldkonna ajakirjast, kuid võiks siiski huvi pakkuda näiteks poliitikakujundajatele, ametnikele, haridusvaldkonnas tegutsejatele, lastevanematele, jpt, sest tegeleb suutlikkuse mõtestamisega. Ja kuna tegemist on kirjandusülevaatega, siis on see kasulik nii teemasse lugejatele kui tudengitele kirjandusülevaateks ideede ammutamisel.

Võimekuse mõtteloos fookuse teisenemisest:

“Capacity building2 has been granted a pivotal role in development discourse and practice (An et al., 2017; Chrysostome et al., 2019; De Grauwe, 2009; Eger et al., 2018; Haque et al., 2021; Lusthaus et al., 1999; Ricks & Doner, 2021; Wignaraja, 2006). The focus of the concept of capacity, which dates back to the 1960s, has shifted from individual capabilities in the 1970s, to organizational capabilities in the 1980s and 1990s, and in recent years to getting a community’s, a state’s or a society’s institutions right.” (Kacou et al., 2022, p. 215)

Anekdoodid võtavad võimu:

“A remarkable feature in the evolution of the concept lies in the fact that, from the outset, practitioners in the public and non‐profit sectors were at the forefront of knowledge production, creating an abundant grey literature (AID, 1970; Barnett & Engel, 1982; De Grauwe, 2009; Lusthaus et al., 1999; Qualman & Bolger, 1996; Wignaraja, 2006; World Bank, 2009). In search of normative frameworks or guidelines for “best practices”, these practitioners have relied mostly on case studies and anecdotes (An et al., 2017). At the same time, there has been little peer‐reviewed research on capacity building until recently. (See Bockstael, 2017; Brinkerhoff & Morgan, 2010; Eger et al., 2018; Ricks & Doner, 2021 for the few exceptions.)” (Kacou et al., 2022, p. 216)

Uurimisküsimus:

“Since concepts are the ontological building blocks of theories, our research questions are as follows: what do we know about the evolution of the concept of capacity building and what can history tell us about its strengths and weaknesses?” (Kacou et al., 2022, p. 216)

Arutelu ilma sisuta määratlemata:

“Many authors discuss the concept of capacity building with no attempt to clarify what “capacity” means and how it can be measured. (See Table 1 for a few exceptions).” (Kacou et al., 2022, p. 216)

Suutlikus opereerib kolmel tasandil:

“We suggest that capacity operates at three levels: individual, organizational, and institutional (An et al., 2017). At the individual level, capacity refers to technical and analytical abilities, skills, competences, and/or knowledge. At the organizational level, capacity refers to organizational capabilities or the ability to get groups of agents, a team, or a unit to get the right policy done right. At the institutional level, capacity is the overall ability of individuals, organizations, communities, states and societies as a whole to successfully tackle their collective challenges and create long‐term benefits for” (Kacou et al., 2022, p. 216)  […] “their diverse stakeholders.” (Kacou et al., 2022, p. 217)

Uus-pragmatismi praktikad võiks pakkuda lahenduse suutlikkuse valdkonnas valitsevale määramatusele ja ebaselgusele:

“In other words, pragmatists are consistently searching for practical standards to solve the problems of the day with a relatively nonideological stance, as they embrace, not reduce, the complexity of the world, and seek to reconcile polar opposites such as the aforementioned high‐level abstractions and down‐to‐earth considerations. This is the core principle of the “new pragmatism”.” (Kacou et al., 2022, p. 226)

Uus paradigma kerkib esile siis, kui senine ammendub:

“Kuhn (1970) argued that new paradigms emerge to provide model problems and solutions to a community of practitioners when past or existing paradigms come to exhaustion. Capacity building and its related concepts have followed this pattern, though the passage from institution building to institutional development to capacity building/development has not really been revolutionary, but more incremental.” (Kacou et al., 2022, p. 227)

Kacou, K. P., Ika, L. A., & Munro, L. T. (2022). Fifty years of capacity building: Taking stock and moving research forward1. Public Administration and Development42(4), 215–232. https://doi.org/10.1002/pad.1993

Siinviidatud vabalevis olev tekst üks vähestest eranditest selles voos. Erand selles tähenduses, et teksti uurimisaine ei kuuluks justkui siinse lehe fookusvaldkondade hulka. Õnneks olen vaba otsustamaks, mida siin jadaga ja ei ole piiritletud ametnikke suunavate-piiravate reeglitega. Kuna siinse lehe lugeja on eesti keelt kõnelev, siis on tekst mõeldud just meile: eesti keelt kõnelevatele inimestele.

Kontekstiks klassikat:

“Arusaam keelest sõltub teoreetilisest lähenemisest, teooriast sõltumatuid seisukohti ei ole olemas (Tognini-Bonelli 2001: 178).” (Risberg, 2022, p. 185)

Teoreetiline raamistik:

“Ka selle artikli teoreetiliseks raamistikuks on kasutuspõhine keeleteooria ja korpuslingvistika, mille järgi kerkivad sõnatähenduse nüansid keelekasutusest ning keelekasutuse andmeid sisaldab keelekorpus (Belica jt 2010: 115).” (Risberg, 2022, p. 186)

Probleem:

“Täpsemalt seisneb artiklis käsitletav probleem selles, et tänapäeva eesti keelekorralduses on aastakümneid olnud tava hinnata sõnade tähenduste sobivust.” (Risberg, 2022, p. 186)

Liikumissuunad:

“Sõnaraamatute ühendamise käigus ajakohastame EKI-s ka keelekorralduse põhimõtteid (vt Risberg & Langemets 2021, Paet & Risberg 2021). Näiteks põhineme soovituste andmisel (anname üldisi, mitte üksiksõnade kohta käivaid soovitusi) tegeliku keelekasutuse andmetel (kasutuspõhine teooria, vt Langacker 1987, Barlow & Kemmer 2002, Diessel 2017, mida toetab korpuslingvistika, vt Gries & Stefanowitsch 2007, Stefanowitsch 2020).” (Risberg, 2022, p. 187)

Tähendusel on potentsiaal!

“Sõna üksi ei tähenda aga midagi, tähendusel on vaid potentsiaal see realiseerub inimese peas konteksti toel (Trudgill 1998: 5, Cruse 2001: 16, Tognini-Bonelli 2001: 103, Croft & Cruse 2005: 109, Crystal 2006: 190, Belica jt 2010: 119, Hanks 2013: 73). Vastupidiselt müütidele ongi kasutuspõhise keelekäsitluse seisukoht, et sõnatähendused ei ole kindlaks määratud, vaid sõltuvad keelekasutajatest (Crystal 2006: 186, Aitchison 2018: 126).” (Risberg, 2022, p. 188)

Trendid keelekorralduses:

“Keelekorralduses3 on nii mujal kui Eestis muuhulgas tegeletud keele tahtliku muutmise ja ka keelekasutuse muutuste tõrjumisega (vt Armstrong & Mackenzie 2013: 125). Eestis oli see eriti esiplaanil sadakond aastat tagasi, mil ühist kirjakeelt alles loodi ja keelt kui vahendit püüti teha paremaks, teiste kultuurkeeltega võrdseks (Vare 2001: 570, vt ka Kerge 2012).” (Risberg, 2022, p. 189)

Sõnaraamat ei ole keel ise!

“Keelega seotud hoiakuid mõjutab see, et tihti unustatakse ära, et nagu keel ei ole iseenesest tekkinud seaduste kogum (Crystal 2006: 454, ja seaduseidki kirjutavad inimesed, Harris 2002: 21), ei ole seda ka (õigekeelsus)sõnaraamat. Lisaks on kohati tekkinud kujutlus, et sõnaraamat ongi keel ise (Harris 2002: 4, ka Milroy 2001: 537).” (Risberg, 2022, p. 190)

Ohud!

“Oma emakeele tunnetus tuleb keele uurimisel küll kasuks – kuniks seda ei aeta andmetega segamini (Stefanowitsch 2020: 2).” (Risberg, 2022, p. 191)

Mis on ÕS

“Eestis on ÕS olnud preskriptiivne ehk suunav ja soovitav sõnaraamat. Üheski ÕSis ei ole kõiki sõnu ära seletatud („2013. a õigekeelsussõnaraamatu põhimõtted“5).” (Risberg, 2022, p. 193)

Selgub, et sõnu on …

“Eesti keele ühendkorpuses 2019 on 1,5 miljardit sõna, samas kui ÕS 2018-s on otseseid tähendussoovitusi antud kokku 130 keelendile, millest omakorda vaid 44 on eesti omasõnad.” (Risberg, 2022, p. 195)

Tähendusnihked:

“Tähendusnihked ja -ülekanded on keeles loomulikud, need on sageli seotud metafoori- ja metonüümiaseostega (vt Dirven & Pörings 2003, Langemets 2009: 172–175, Erelt jt 2020: 596–598, ka oskuskeel on kujundlik: vt Kull 2000: 549). Sellesse rühma kuuluvad näiteks keelendid kaardistama, tööriistakast, ümber vaatama.” (Risberg, 2022, p. 201) […] “Sõna tööriistakast otsese tähenduse ’kast tööriistade hoidmiseks ja kaasas kandmiseks’ (kasutuses 35%) kõrval on peetud ebasoovitatavaks tema kasutamist (ülekantud) tähenduses ’vahendid, tööriistad’ (53%; Selline argument on alati tööriistakastis olemas; lisaks esines see 12% arvutiga seotud kontekstis).” (Risberg, 2022, p. 202)

Keelendite sildistamine:

“Mainitud on keelelise mitmekesisuse säilitamist ja keelerikkust, sildistades osi keelendeid moesõnadeks ja pidades teisi ametnike slängile omaseks (vt ka Saari 2004 [1989]: 527, AMSS 2013). Sellesse rühma kuuluvad näiteks keelendid kaasajastama, kõrgendama, päeva lõpuks.” (Risberg, 2022, p. 202) […] “Näiteks väljendi päeva lõpuks kohta on keelekorralduses öeldud:” (Risberg, 2022, p. 202) […] “„Ärgem kasutagem üht ähmase sisuga moeväljendit, vaid mõelgem eesti keele mitmekesisusele!“ („Päeva lõpuks“), „sageli täiteväljend, millel puudub mõte“ (AMSS 2013). Ent seda keelendit kasutatakse 72% ÕSi soovitatud, otseses tähenduses ja 26% ebasoovitatavas, kujundlikus tähenduses ’lõpuks’ (2% juhtudel ei selgunud tähendus konteksti nappuse tõttu). Lisaks esineb keelendit päeva lõpuks ühendkorpuses 2019 palju vähem kui keelekorralduses eelistatumaid väljendeid lõpuks, kokkuvõttes, lõppude lõpuks: 6945 esinemisjuhtu vs. vastavalt 77, 13,1 ja 1,9 korda rohkem kasutust (tähendusi arvestamata).” (Risberg, 2022, p. 203)

Lugemishuvi suurendamiseks:

“Johannes Voldemar Veski (1929: 129) küsis ligi sajand tagasi, „kas on mõtet eesti keele sõnu tähendusvarjundite poolest eristada või mitte“, ja vastas tollase keelekorralduse seisukohalt raudse jaaga. Aeg on küps mõtteviisi muutuseks keelekorralduses: üldkeele omasõnade tähenduste kohta ei ole asjakohane soovitusi anda.” (Risberg, 2022, p. 208)

Risberg, L. (2022). Mis on peidus sõnaraamatu tähendussoovituste tagahoovis? Eesti omasõnade käsitlus. Eesti Ja Soome-Ugri Keeleteaduse Ajakiri. Journal of Estonian and Finno-Ugric Linguistics13(2), 185–214. https://doi.org/10.12697/jeful.2022.13.2.06

Siinviidatu leidis oma koha peamiselt põhjusel, et tegeleb väga spetsiifilise politseitööga seonduva aspektiga: töörežiimi ja toitumise vaheliste seostega. Politseinike, nii nagu kõikide teiste professioonide esindajatel, on tööst tõukuvad riskid tervisele, mida oleks kasulik tunnistada ja millega tegeleda. Siinviidatu tegeles väga kitsa – arusaadavalt! – perspektiiviga. On lootus, et uurimustööd hakkavad sedalaadi küsimusi kajastama ka avaramalt, st toiduvalikute küsimusi nii indiviidi tervise kui ka kestliku arengu seisukohast.

Kontekstiks:

“Due to the high occupational stress, there are approximately 2% of the UK police force are currently on long-term sickness leave, the highest it has been in 10 years (2). Furthermore, a substantial amount of research has demonstrated high rates of overweight, obesity and cardiometabolic health conditions in police officers across the world (2-5)” (Allen et al., 2022, p. 2)

Kontekstuaalsed toitumist ja tervist mõjutavad faktorid:

“To ensure policing services are available around the clock, shift work, is common practice. This, however, is widely associated with a higher risk of obesity (9), diabetes (10), hypertension (11) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) (12). Whilst several physiological, behavioural and environmental factors contribute to these outcomes, the unifying component is the effect that shift work has on the body’s circadian system.” (Allen et al., 2022, p. 2)

Politseitöö vahetustega töö erisused:

“A police officer’s job is unique in not only its physical demand, involving periods of high-intensity activity whilst wearing 7-40 kilograms of protective gear (19) but also in its spontaneous nature and lack of designated breaks.” (Allen et al., 2022, p. 3)

Autorid sõnastava eesmärgi:

“The aim of this research, therefore, is to understand the barriers and the impact that different shift types have on the dietary habits of police officers in the UK, using an online cross-sectional survey.” (Allen et al., 2022, p. 4)

Andmeallikad:

“130 individuals completed the survey. However, three were excluded due to not working shifts, leaving a sample of 127 British Police Officers, with the participant demographics outlined in table 1.” (Allen et al., 2022, p. 7)

Lugemishuvi suurendamiseks:

“Shift work was found to have a negative impact on the diet quality of UK police officers, with scores being significantly lower on all shift types compared to rest days. Furthermore, most participants said that their diet has been affected by working shifts, specifically through their increased reliance on convenience and poor-quality foods and altered frequency and timing of food consumption. The majority of this group were overweight or obese (65.4%) which somewhat reflects these findings.” (Allen et al., 2022, p. 11)

Allen, K., Safi, A., & Deb, S. K. (2022). An exploration into the impact that shift work has on the nutritional behaviours of UK police officers. British Journal of Nutrition, 1–27. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0007114522002999

Siinviidatu pretendeerib paljude uurimistöö metoodikaid, inimestejuhtimist ja ühiskondliku käitumise tähendust puudutavate kursuste seminaritekstiks. Siiski, artikkel võiks pakkuda mõndagi ka neile, kelle igapäevane lugemisfookus on teistel žanridel. Siin tasub veidi aega varuda, kuid nauding värsketest teadmistest peaks korvama võimaliku täiendava ajakulu.

Kontekstiks:

“HRM focuses on the organizational perspective and performances, and extends its boundaries by adopting cross-functional approaches in strategic HRM, cross-cultural practices, political influences and IHRM (International HRM) (Ferris et al., 1999; Hoobler and Johnson, 2004; Bonache and Festing, 2020).” (Mhatre and Mehta, 2022, p. 1)

Inimestejuhtimise roll: Ulrichi mudel

“According to the Ulrich model, functions of the HRM include strategic partner, change agent, employee champion and administrative expert. Strategic partner in HRM deals with the alignment of HR activities with the global research strategies of the organization. Change agent deals with organizational change in the area of human capital. Administrative expert handles the various administrative work related to HRM, for example, introducing paperless policies. Employee champion is responsible for ensuring an employee-friendly environment, well-being, work satisfaction and care among employees.” (Mhatre and Mehta, 2022, p. 1)

Vajadus teatud uurimismeetodi järele:

“Several management phenomena (Anosike et al.,2012), including HRM, remained unexamined and required in-depth analyses of how employees experience and attach meaning in their day-to-day work-life. A rigorous, in-depth inquiry and methodology is required to understand and capture the essence or interpret the meaning attributed to the lived experiences of the phenomenon. Thus, the practice of an interpretivist research approach is required to explore and focus on the employee’s everyday life experiences.” (Mhatre and Mehta, 2022, p. 2)

Interpretivism ja fenomenoloogia:

“Interpretivist paradigm declines “any eternal, single universal truth and instead believes in multiple truth to reality” (Rehman and Alharthi, 2016; Guba and Lincoln, 2005, p. 204). Interpretivist looks at the world through intentionality rather than causality (Packard, 2017). The interpretivist research paradigm is based on phenomenology (Bonache and Festing, 2020; Sandberg, 2005).” (Mhatre and Mehta, 2022, p. 2)

Fenomenoloogia võimalused:

“Phenomenology as a methodology has the potential to understand the various phenomena in the field of HRM. Phenomenology deals with the study of the lived experiences of human beings to uncover the meaning attached to their day-to-day life. As a methodology, it explicates an innermost understanding of phenomenon based on knowledge by investigating the lived experiences of participants through systematic analysis.” (Mhatre and Mehta, 2022, p. 2)

Uurimisküsimus:

“What is the scope of the phenomenological approaches in HRM?” (Mhatre and Mehta, 2022, p. 3)

Fenomenoloogia tuum:

“Thus, phenomenological research derives an in-depth understanding of the meaning of a phenomenon, i.e. what does this phenomenon mean to the participant (self). It is unrelated to the external knowledge, which is based on the logic of generalizing the observation and measurable data (Van Manen, 2014).” (Mhatre and Mehta, 2022, p. 4)

Analüüsipõhimõtted:

“The theoretical underpinning of interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA) was laid by Jonathan Smith (Smith et al., 2009). IPA’s primary focus is on a detailed study of experiences of participants and how they make sense of their private and social worlds (Smith and Osborn, 2008; Shinebourne, 2011).” (Mhatre and Mehta, 2022, p. 8)

Lugemishuvi suurendamiseks:

“Phenomenology serves as a methodology and philosophy. It deals with the discovery of the existing, which is often left unseen in our everyday life. To this end, this article provides the usefulness of employing phenomenological approaches to explore many significant phenomena in the field of HRM. The HRM domain focuses on managing the people in local and multinational contexts to deal with several complex phenomena.” (Mhatre and Mehta, 2022, p. 15)

Mhatre, S. G., & Mehta, N. K. (2022). Review of phenomenological approaches and its scope in human resource management. Journal of Organizational Effectiveness: People and Performance, 1–20. https://doi.org/10.1108/JOEPP-12-2021-0354

Siinviidatu võiks huvi pakkuda kõikidele inimestele, sest tegeleb sotsiaalsete süsteemide mõistmisega indiviidi identiteedi ja staatuse kaudu. Väga kasulik analüütiline tekst nii töölt-koju rutiinsel marsruudil liikuvale ja kollasele ajakirjandusele keskendujale kui organisatsiooniuurijatele.

Kontekstiks

“Individuals in organizations are members of groups nested at different levels, so they have choices about where to identify (Millward & Haslam, 2013; Va n Knippenberg & Van Schie, 2000) and where to contribute. Students are members of colleges within universities. Soldiers are members of battalions within brigades. Corporate employees are members of divisions within companies.” (Harush et al., 2022, p. 2)

Miks grupikuuluvustunne on oluline?

“Group identification matters. It predicts employee behaviors and organizational outcomes (Ashforth & Mael, 1989; Lee, Park, and Koo, 2015; Millward & Postmes, 2010).” (Harush et al., 2022, p. 2)

Eelistuste määratlemine võimaldab käitumist ennustada

“Separately, research on professional and organizational identities finds the precedence individuals give to one group membership over others can influence” (Harush et al., 2022, p. 2) […] “behavior (Hekman, Bigley, Steensma, and Hereford, 2009; Johnson, Morgeson, Ilgen, Meyer, and Lloyd, 2006). Thus, it is not just individual group identities that matter, but the pattern of identifications across groups, or the identity configuration, that results from employees’ choices about where to identify that matters.” (Harush et al., 2022, p. 3)

Staatuseeelistus võib piiritleda valikud:

“Status is “the prestige, respect, and esteem that a party has in the eyes of others” (Bendersky & Pai, 2018, p. 183). At a group level, status derives from intergroup comparisons reflecting the relative value or prestige of one social group versus another (Major et al., 2002; Tajfel & Turner, 1979).” (Harush et al., 2022, p. 3)

Uurimisküsimus:

“In sum, this research explores what shapes individuals’ identity configurations in organizations.” (Harush et al., 2022, p. 4)

Staatus erinevates gruppides ja identiteedi teisenemine:

“Since status varies between organizational subgroups and employees are simultaneously members of work groups at different organizational levels, status differences across subgroups may lead individuals to identify differently with various organizational groups, and therefore to different identity configurations.” (Harush et al., 2022, p. 5)

Lugemishuvi suurendamiseks:

“The studies found consistent links between organizational subgroup status and individuals’ identity configurations as well as the groups they chose to serve with citizenship behaviors. Subgroup status, as an enduring component of many organizations’ social structures, provides individuals with guidance about where to identify and where to direct discretionary efforts.” (Harush et al., 2022, p. 25)

Harush, R., Loewenstein, J., Klang, M., & Rubin, M. (2022). My Department or My Company? Group Status, Identity Configurations, and Citizenship Behaviors. Group & Organization Management, 1–36. https://doi.org/10.1177/10596011221121463