Siinviidatu leidis oma koha peamiselt kahel põhjuse. 1) Otsustamine puudutab kõiki siinse lehe fookusteemasid.2) Siinviidatud raamatuarvustus võib ehk juhatada organisatsioonide valdkonna ühe tippajakirja sirvima ning annab põhjust viidata eelmisel aastal ilmunud tekstile.

Selgitus sellest, miks võiks raamat huvi pakkuda:

“In Noise: A Flaw in Human Judgment, Daniel Kahneman, Olivier Sibony, and Cass R. Sunstein illustrate worrisome, even scandalous, levels of noise in various judgment domains, distinguish key contributors to noise, and propose practical tools to reduce noise and thereby improve judgment.” (Brenner, 2022, p. 1)

Noise on omamoodi loogiline järg Daniel Kahnemani raamatule Kiire ja aeglane mõtlemine:

“Noise can be seen as a natural companion to Kahneman’s 2011 bestseller, Thinking, Fast and Slow, which addressed the issue of bias in human judgment. Noise opens by distinguishing bias from noise, using an analogy of target shooting. A set of shots closely bunched but systematically above the bullseye shows bias but little noise.” (Brenner, 2022, p. 1)

Müra on rohkem, kui võiks arvata:

“The book’s key empirical thesis is ‘‘wherever there is judgment, there is noise—and more of it than you think’’ (p. 12).” (Brenner, 2022, p. 1)

Müra tuleb nähtavale tuua:

“Noise is a statistical property and requires a set of judgments to be made explicit. When cases are treated as unique, noise is easy to overlook. The authors propose the concept of a ‘‘noise audit,’’ in which multiple judgments are made on a set of cases, to directly instantiate noise that may be hidden by the focus on a single case.” (Brenner, 2022, p. 2)

Organisatsioonihuvilistele:

“The authors are under no illusion that organizational systems that reduce noise via formal algorithms or structured human-mediated judgments will be perfect, but they make a strong case for the incremental improvement of such systems. A challenge of this position is that prediction in social and behavioral domains is intrinsically so difficult; even systems that greatly reduce noise will still frequently err, and critics of such systems will pounce on such errors.” (Brenner, 2022, p. 3)

Brenner, L. A. (2022). Daniel Kahneman, Olivier Sibony, and Cass R. Sunstein. Noise: A Flaw in Human Judgment. Administrative Science Quarterly, 1–4. https://doi.org/10.1177/00018392221119294

Ajakiri Group & Organization Management on organisatsioonihuvilistele tuttav, selles ei ole kahtlust. Nii kõrgetasemelise ajakirja peatoimetajad ei vahetu just sageli ja sellise vahetusega kaasnevad teatud sõnumid. Siinviidatu leidiski oma koha põhjusel, et huvilisel on võimalik heita pilk meile avatud kitsast perspektiivist ühe ajakirja fookusele, põhimõtetele, tempole ja saada vihjeid kirjutamiseks-publitseerimiseks.

Kontekstiks:

“Thomas Zagenczyk, the outgoing Editor-in-Chief, left me a healthy line of manuscripts (close to 100) which were in different stages of the submission system. Moreover, in my short time as incoming Editor-inChief, manuscripts continued to pour in, just north of 100 in just under five months.” (Griep, 2022, p. 1)

Julgustuseks kirjutajatele!

“Through reading these papers, through publishing (and getting rejected) my own research in the journal (Griep, Germeys, & Kraak, 2021), and through being a reviewer, editorial board member, and Senior Associate Editor on Tom Zagenczyk’s team, I came to identify quite strongly with GOM and noticed that our community of GOMmers (that is right, it is a term now, I coined it) continues to grow exponentially.” (Griep, 2022, page 1-2)

Konstruktiivne hoiak:

“Even when desk rejecting manuscript, we strive to provide detailed feedback on how you can further improve your manuscript within a few days after submission. We do realize that receiving desk rejections is never a fun experience” (Griep, 2022, p. 2)

Soovitused autorile …

“When submitting a GOM Now short paper, we ask you to do the following: (1) clearly state the problem/question of interest and why that topic is important from a practical point of view,” (Griep, 2022, p. 4)

Toimetajate meeskond

“In addition to our team of Senior Associate Editors, we have also expanded our team to 41 Associate Editors.” (Griep, 2022, p. 7)

Kirjutamisjulgustuseks:

“I want to extent a heartfelt thank you to all of you—readers, reviewers, and authors of GOM—without you there would not even be a journal.” (Griep, 2022, p. 9)

Griep, Y. (2022). Greetings from the New Editor: Directions for Group & Organization Management. Group & Organization Management, 1–11. https://doi.org/10.1177/10596011221115980

Mindfulnessi ja selle erinevate praktikate olulisus järjest keerustuvas keskkonnas ning kiirenevas ajas ei ole ilmselt kahtluse all. Siinviidatu leidis oma koha peamiselt põhjusel, et tegeleb mediteerimiseks motivatsiooni uurimisega ning nii tekst ise kui järeldused võiksid väga paljudele huvi pakkuda.

Kontekstiks:

“Setting the right motivation or intention for meditation practice has been an important facet of Buddhist practice since the time of the Buddha and continues to be emphasized across modern schools of Buddhism (Damdul, 2018; Sirimanne, 2018). In the Dhammapada, derived from the Pāli Canon, the sacred scriptures of the Theravada school, the Buddha encourages adherents to set their intent toward enlightenment, and negative mental states which cloud the mind, such as fear, anger, anxiety, and jealousy, will diminish (Buddharakkhita, 1985).” (Jiwani et al., 2022, page 1-2)

Mediteerimispraktikate kasutajate tõus:

“More recently, a national survey by the American Psychiatric Association revealed that a quarter of Americans planned a mental health–related New Year’s resolution in 2022, and within this group, 53% planned to engage in meditation practice (American Psychiatric Association, 2021). Simultaneously, curiosity about meditation has also increased interest in Buddhism in the U.S.A., which is evidenced by the growing number of spiritual centers which teach the spiritual tenets of Buddhism and encourage the pursuit of enlightenment (Gelles, 2019; H.G., 2018).” (Jiwani et al., 2022, p. 2)

Artikli neli eesmärki:

“This paper has four objectives. First, we aim to assess the initial motivations for practice for all individuals exposed to meditation practice as well as current motivations for those with an ongoing practice in a national sample of internet users. Second, building on prior work on motivations (Carmody et al., 2009; Pepping et al., 2016; Schmidt, 2014; Sedlmeier & Theumer, 2020; Shapiro, 1992), we aim to assess if and how motivations change over time for individuals with an ongoing practice. Third, we examine demographic correlates of initial motivations for all participants exposed to meditation and of current motivations for those with an ongoing practice. Finally, we aim to examine how initial and current motivations might be associated with the course of practice, namely current and lifetime practice amount.” (Jiwani et al., 2022, p. 2)

Vihje andmete kogumisest:

“Participants were given six possible motivations for meditation, including (1) physical health; (2) mental/emotional health, or stress reduction; (3) social, cultural, or religious identity; (4) spiritual or self-transformation goals; (5) pursuit of enlightenment, awakening, or other ultimate goal; and (6) other. Participants could select as many reasons as were applicable to them for initial and current motivation.” (Jiwani et al., 2022, p. 4)

Andmeanalüüs:

“Data were analyzed in R statistical software program (R Core Team, 2021). All data and code used for analysis are available at the Open Science Framework.” (Jiwani et al., 2022, p. 4)

Lugemishuvi suurendamiseks:

“Consistent with Pepping et al. (2016), our findings suggest that a large proportion of individuals (74.2%) are initially motivated to meditate to support their mental health and/or reduce stress. Furthermore, contrary to the continuum hypothesis proposed by Shapiro (1992), mental health motivations in the present sample increased rather than decreased over time, which also aligns with Pepping et al. (2016).” (Jiwani et al., 2022, p. 8) […] “Finally, our study also suggests that the number of current motivations is associated with current and lifetime hours of practice.” (Jiwani et al., 2022, p. 9)

Jiwani, Z., Lam, S. U., Davidson, R. J., & Goldberg, S. B. (2022). Motivation for Meditation and Its Association with Meditation Practice in a National Sample of Internet Users. Mindfulness. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12671-022-01985-6

Rein Müllerson on üks neist inimestest, kelle väljendatud mõtted ja praktikad ei jäta ilmselt kedagi külmaks. Siinviidatu on vabalevis olev mõttevahetus ühe silmapaistva ja mõjuka eestikeelse mõtlejaga ning võiks oma haardelt huvi pakkuda väga paljudele lugejatele.

Kontekstiks:

“Hence, I have been almost equally influenced by three different cultures; my initial small country mentality has been ‘spoilt’ by great-power mindsets attained in two different imperial capitals – Moscow and London. Such a mixture, uncomfortable sometimes at a personal level, gives wider perspectives at a professional level.” (Menéndez and Müllerson, 2022, p. 447)

Mõistmisest, mitte hukkamõistmisest:

“Fighting one evil cannot result in whitewashing other evils. I find that extremely disturbing. Propaganda plays a key role in that regard. Many people in the USSR were brainwashed, but manipulation of the public opinion has become more intense and sophisticated also in the West.” (Menéndez and Müllerson, 2022, p. 447)

Teadmised tekivad kontekstuaalselt, kuid siiski omaniku aktiivsel osalusel:

“After 15 days of confinement (for going AWOL) together with a guy from Ukraine, I could babble also in Ukrainian. Later, while teaching in Guinea Bissau, I also learnt Portuguese. In parallel with my law studies at Moscow University, I also graduated as English-Russian interpreter from the Faculty of Languages.” (Menéndez and Müllerson, 2022, p. 448)

Jõuvahekorrad teisenevad:

“China followed much more independent policies and, perhaps for this very same reason, was spared failure. The heart of the matter is that many fundamental questions remained unsolved, and now we have to go back to the drawingboard, so to say, and think how to solve these issues of coexistence between different societies. Europe is no longer a valid paradigm for the world.” (Menéndez and Müllerson, 2022, p. 450)

Seaduste-reeglite mõju vähenemise kontekst:

“We had been moving towards a world split into rival camps, in which the role of law is becoming smaller and smaller.” (Menéndez and Müllerson, 2022, p. 451)

Mõtteruumi kujunemine:

“Probably my engagement with non-Western civilisations, such as the Chinese and the Muslim, to say nothing of my 20-odd years plunge into the Russian culture (which I consider to be an important part of the European culture), has also prevented me from easily falling for fads, as well as forcing me to consider different perspectives. This might have helped in the early 2000s, when a certain understanding of international law as an instrument of the ‘liberal’ reshaping of the world came to the fore.” (Menéndez and Müllerson, 2022, p. 452)

Suure ja väikese perspektiiv:

“Contrariwise, when, after 20 years of living and working in Moscow, I was back in Estonia, I realised that there everything was seen from the standpoint of a small nation, and there was a certain blindness to wider perspectives. You may say that this is a result of spending the three different thirds of my life in three different places, feeling almost at home in all of them, but at the same time remaining partially alien in all of them.” (Menéndez and Müllerson, 2022, p. 455)

Universaalsuse küsimus:

“I have recently argued9 (again) that the problem is the instrumentalisation of rights. Some human rights are, or should be, universal. But as with everything, it is necessary to consider the specifics. Consider the Soviet case. Activists were moved by genuine concerns, and pressure on human rights issues was overall positive.” (Menéndez and Müllerson, 2022, p. 458)

Võimutasakaalust:

“My view is that there is simply no way (or no good way) out of balance of power. The arrogance of one power player can only be checked by the arrogance of another powerful player or players. It is from that perspective that international law is, and can be, a gentle civiliser of nations. Sometimes you need, however, a harsh civiliser of nations. Lord Acton is said to have claimed that power corrupts and absolute power corrupts absolutely. This observation is even truer in international relations.” (Menéndez and Müllerson, 2022, p. 460)

Menéndez, A. J., & Müllerson, R. (2022). Three times lucky: In dialogue with Rein Müllerson. European Law Open1(2), 446–461. https://doi.org/10.1017/elo.2022.30

Otsustamine on igapäevane ja kõiki puudutav, sestap võiks ka huvi selle vastu olla suurel hulgal inimestel. Siinviidatud vabalevis olev tekst on muuhulgas huvitav, sest taasesitab ja arendab pool sajandit vana prügikastimudeli põhimõtteid.

Tõuge uurimistööks.

“We were intrigued by how citizens used social media to organize and match vast resources and spontaneous volunteers (Trautwein, Liberatore, Lindenmeier, & von Schnurbein, 2020) to disparate problems and appeals for help (Carlsen et al., 2021) under extreme ambiguity (Hällgren, Rouleau, & de Rond, 2018; Weick, 2015).” (Burke et al., 2022, p. 2)

Uurimisküsimus:

“How do emergent online groups translate chaotic online interactions into offline helping activity during a crisis?” (Burke et al., 2022, p. 2)

Kuidas online teiseneb offlineks:

“Recent contributions in organization studies and crisis management suggest that online-offline translations are crucial for resourcing emergent group activities. The civil society start-up ‘Train of Hope’, for example, used social media as a sharing platform – an ‘uberification of help’ – to source and mobilize people and resources at Vienna’s central train station to help refugees (Kornberger et al., 2018).” (Burke et al., 2022, p. 4)

Organiseeritud anarhia:

“The term ‘organized anarchies’ conveys how emergent groups have the features of what Cohen and colleagues (1972) called organized anarchies in their garbage can model. That is, emergent groups, even in their primordial form, are characterized by fluid participation, problematic preferences and unclear technology (Cohen et al., 1972).” (Burke et al., 2022, p. 4)

Prügikastimudeli “sisu”:

“The garbage can model (GCM) conceptualizes how choices are made in organized anarchies that display vague or inconsistent ideas about what they should do and how they should do it (Padgett, 1980). When organizations face ambiguity with poorly understood problems wandering in and out of the system (Cohen et al., 1972, p. 16), temporal simultaneity is the best explanation of how choices are made, not rational choice (March, 1994). As March (1978, p. 592) explained, to understand how collective choices happen under ambiguity, we must pay attention to timings and temporal conjunctions, where people, problems, solutions and choices happen to be ‘joined by the relatively arbitrary accidents of their simultaneity’.” (Burke et al., 2022, p. 4)

Lugemishuvi suurendamiseks:

“Consequently, March’s (2018) logics of consequences and appropriateness have been deemed ‘insufficient guides to decision-making’ (Kornberger et al., 2019, p. 250). Recent empirical scholarship has focused on alternative decision-making logics as a solution to this dilemma. For example, Monllor, Pavez and Pareti (2020) found that volunteers used an effectual logic – i.e. experimentation, improvisation, on-the-go planning.” (Burke et al., 2022, p. 19)

Burke, G. T., Omidvar, O., Spanellis, A., & Pyrko, I. (2022). Making Space for Garbage Cans: How emergent groups organize social media spaces to orchestrate widescale helping in a crisis. Organization Studies, 01708406221103969. https://doi.org/10.1177/01708406221103969

Siinviidatu on üks teistmoodi tekst. Vahelduseks. Leidis oma koha põhjusel, et on vabalevis ja selle lugemine võiks pakkuda pingutust. Siiski, siinse uudistevoo jälgijatele ei peaks tekst siiski “läbimatuks” osutuma.

Kontekstiks:

“Accordingly, both in critical theory proper and wider sociology, the landscape has changed so as to problematize any possibility of such a theory re-emerging. In what follows, the attempt is made to turn difficulty into opportunity. Important currents in scholarship in the social, cultural and, where different, normative sciences provide new orientation, when suitably reinterpreted and melded with the communicative turn in second-generation critical theory.” (O’Mahony, 2022, p. 2)

Kriitilise semiootika kolm intellektuaalset dimensiooni ühiskonnateooriale:

“In the following, three intellectual dimensions of the preferred critical semiotic approach to the theory of society will be amplified. The three dimensions are: (a) Immanenttranscendence in a communicative semiotic register; (b) A cognitive-inferential epistemology; and (c) Inquiry based on reasonable not solipsistic doubt.” (O’Mahony, 2022, p. 3)

Pierce mõistlikud kahtlused:

“The essence of reasonable doubt is that it starts from a doubt centred on what is already believed to be known and proceeds from there. It does not start from nowhere with the premise that everything is radically questioned by the sceptical, knowledge-seeking individual. It operates as a model of social integration, whether for the socially situated doubter or the social scientist reconstructing the doubting process of others, in that doubt is conditioned by a social background context while at the same indicating a need for further learning.” (O’Mahony, 2022, p. 8)

Abduktsioon tuleb mängu:

“The appearance of doubt in abductive conjecture, the process of gestating potential new knowledge in the case of successful conjecture, follows the phenomenological construction of possible worlds in perception. The abductive moment in cognition associated with doubt is an impulse to the critical reconstruction of existing knowledge.” (O’Mahony, 2022, p. 8)

Eemale entiteetidest ja lähemale suhetele ja protsessidele:

“Modern social ontologies are far from the older ontological model of representing the reality of an external world assumed beyond direct human control yet fateful for human action. In the social sciences, these social ontologies recognize the importance of relations and processes (Renault, 2016).” (O’Mahony, 2022, p. 9)

Abduktsiooni järelmid on etteaimamatud:

“Abduction is closely associated with the ‘cognitive praxis’ of movements of various kinds. This does not mean only the progressive movements emphasized in critical thought, but conservative and reactionary movements too.” (O’Mahony, 2022, p. 16)

Ühiskonnateooria ja olemasoleva teadmuse vahekorrast:

“The distinction between thirdness and secondness in Peirce also marks a distinction between theorization and knowledge. The theory of society therefore should be understood as a theorization of the process of constructing society, intellectually and practically, that is partly conditioned by existing knowledge, but, as a construction, always exceeds it.” (O’Mahony, 2022, p. 17)

Lugemishuvi suurendamiseks:

“Hence, Hegel’s idea of the becoming of reality, refashioned through left-Hegelian thought, here notably Peirce but in the background Marx, firmly enters the theory of society. Notwithstanding, the autonomous capacity for critique beyond the given marks the vital importance of the Kantian Copernician turn.” (O’Mahony, 2022, p. 21)

O’Mahony, P. (2022). Critical theory, Peirce and the theory of society. European Journal of Social Theory, 1–24. https://doi.org/10.1177/13684310221120006

Siinviidatu võiks huvi pakkuda vist kõikidele inimestele, sest pakub nii sisukaid mõttekäike-ülevaateid kui mitmeid empiirilisi tõendeid. Tekst võiks erilist huvi pakkuda tudengitele, kel huvi näiteks kirjandusülevaate kirjutamiseks, sest demonstreerib kasulikke praktikaid.

Mindfulness juba 2015. a: peaks, mitte võiks!

“Congleton et al. (2015) claimed in the Harvard Business Review, “Mindfulness should no longer be considered a “nice-to-have” for executives but rather a “must-have”: a way to keep our brains healthy, to support self-regulation and effective decision-making capabilities, and to protect ourselves from toxic stress”.” (Daniel et al., 2022, p. 1)

Indiviiditasandit puudutavad argumendid:

“Within management research, the positive implications of mindfulness at the individual level have been documented for physical and psychological well-being (Hülsheger et al., 2015; Hülsheger et al., 2013; Kiburz et al., 2017; Michel et al., 2014) as well as task and job performance (Dane, 2011; Dane & Brummel, 2014; Glomb et al., 2011; Reb et al., 2012).” (Daniel et al., 2022, p. 1)

Algne tähendus:

“In this p tive, mindfulness is defined as “a flexible state of mind in which we are actively engaged in the present, noticing new things and sensitive to context” (Langer, 1989, p. 138), contrasting with mindlessness as an “auto-pilot” mode (Langer, 1997, p.4), which is rigid and governed by taken-for-granted rules and routines that frame and inform action, using inflexible or ‘blind’ categories and distinctions.” (Daniel et al., 2022, p. 2)

Viited kirjandusülevaadetele, mis väga kasulikud n-ö teemasse lugemisel:

“While there have been a number of literature reviews that have scoped existing research and proposed fruitful research agendas (e.g. Glomb et al., 2011; Good et al., 2016; Sutcliffe et al., 2016), meta-analyses (e.g. Bartlett et al., 2019; Mesmer-Magnus et al., 2017) and conceptual reviews (e.g. Kudesia, 2019; Daniel et al., 2022) for mindfulness at work, as well as systematic literature review in specific fields such as information systems (e.g. Dernbecher & Beck, 2017), mindfulness has not yet been subject to any review in project research.” (Daniel et al., 2022, p. 2)

Autorid seavad kolm eesmärki:

“Our goals in this article are threefold. First, we aim at consolidating the existing body of knowledge regarding the investigation of mindfulness in project research. Second, to provide a framework to improve performance and help people manage the stressful project environment, especially around uncertainty, temporality and deadlines, and high risk. Third, we aim at generating new research by project management scholars and new insights for project practitioners.” (Daniel et al., 2022, p. 2)

Väga kasulik kõikidele organisatsioonihuvilistele!

“Mindfulness is the key component that distinguishes high reliability theory from normal accident theory (Perrow, 1984; Sagan, 1993), and is defined as five processes: preoccupation with failure, reluctance to simplify interpretations, sensitivity to operations, commitment to resilience, and deference to expertise (Weick et al., 1999).” (Daniel et al., 2022, p. 2)

Mindfulness kui metakognitiivne praktika:

“Thus, mindfulness can be seen in as expansive and encompassing as a metacognition, that has application towards enhancing performance and improving well-being in HROs. The practical outcome desired is to mobilise tools, resources, and strategies to stabilize challenging and changing activities (cf. Kudesia and Lau, 2020).” (Daniel et al., 2022, p. 3)

Mida võiks veel soovida lugemishuvi suurendamiseks?

“Our structured literature review on mindfulness – a construct that has been fruitfully informing management and organisation studies but has only been included in a limited and scattered way in project research – contributes to continuing efforts to advance theory development and debate within the project community.” (Daniel et al., 2022, p. 6)

Daniel, C., Daniel, P. A., & Smyth, H. (2022). The role of mindfulness in the management of projects: Potential opportunities in research and practice. International Journal of Project Management, 1–16. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijproman.2022.07.003

Siinviidatu võiks huvi pakkuda suurele hulgale lugejatele alates politseinikest kuni poliitikakujundajateni, kuid ka näiteks lapsevanematele või abikaasadele, kes võivad kokku puutuda võimalike narko- või alkojoobes autojuhtidega. Erilise pühendumisega võiks teksti lugeda kõik ennetushuvilised, sest artikkel pakub väga kasuliku ja avara ülevaate-mõtestamise teoreetilistest aspektidest ennetustööks.

Kontekstiks:

“Over 20 per cent of fatalities across the globe (including but not limited to Australia, Canada, Austria, Cambodia, Norway, United States, United Kingdom) have been attributed to drink driving (International Transport Forum, 2017). More recently, in Queensland, Australia (where this study took place), over 22 per cent of fatalities in 2020 were attributed to drink driving motorists (Queensland Government, 2022). […] In terms of drug driving, it has been reported that over 15 per cent of Australian drivers’ have driven under the influence of drugs (Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, 2017). Further, in Queensland between 2011 and 2015, 48 per cent of road crash fatalities had illicit drugs detected in their system (Davey et al., 2020).” (Truelove et al., 2022, p. 2)

Heidutus on tuntud vahend, aga …

“Deterrence theory has typically been used to examine how legal enforcement and punishment can influence engagement in offending behaviour. The perceived certainty of apprehension has been considered the most important component of classical deterrence theory (Beccaria, 1764/ 2007) and has regularly been suggested to be the most important contributor in deterrence research (Homel, 1988; Nagin et al., 2015; Piquero et al., 2011).” (Truelove et al., 2022, p. 3)

Teadlik rikkumine, kuid karistusest hoidumine on oluline faktor ennustamaks:

“Specifically, committing an offence but avoiding punishment has been found to be one of the most influential factors in the continuation of offending behaviour due to weakening individuals’ perceptions of the certainty of being apprehended for the offence (Stafford & Warr, 1993), and this variable has been found to be a strong predictor for both drink driving (e.g., Freeman & Watson, 2006) and drug driving (Armstrong et al., 2018; Watling et al., 2010).” (Truelove et al., 2022, p. 3)

Heidutuse laiendamine:

“Homel (1988) expanded on deterrence theory to create a deterrence-based model that incorporates the non-legal sanctions of 1) the threat of physical loss to oneself (i.e., I might get hurt) and to others (i.e., someone else might get hurt), 2) the threat of internal loss (i.e., I might feel guilty), and 3) the threat of social loss (i.e., my friends/family might judge me).” (Truelove et al., 2022, p. 4)

Millega oleks kasulik arvestada joobes juhtimise ennetamise kavandamisel:

“Taken together, drivers were found to perceive the threat of legal and non-legal deterrents to be greater for drink driving than drug driving. Moreover, avoiding punishment for drug driving was more common than for drink driving.” (Truelove et al., 2022, p. 13)

Lugemishuvi suurendamiseks:

“While there were many similarities between the two (most likely due to the similar enforcement method that is used for both behaviours), the most prominent differences that emerged involved the significant deterrent effect of the perceived certainty of apprehension and severity of punishment for drug driving that was not evident for drink driving.” (Truelove et al., 2022, p. 15)

Truelove, V., Davey, B., & Watson-Brown, N. (2022). Examining the differences in perceived legal and non-legal factors between drink driving and drug driving. Journal of Criminology, 1–19. https://doi.org/10.1177/26338076221114481

Organisatsiooni eesmärkide küsimus vist küll kedagi külmaks ei jäta. Mõtlen ikka neid, kel organisatsioonide või sotsiaalsete süsteemide osas üldse mingid huvid on. Sestap siinviidatud vabalevis olev tekst oma koha leidiski. Lisaks võiks kirjandusülevaade huvi pakkuda nii tudengitele kui uurijatele metoodilisest ja analüütilisest aspektist.

Organisatsioonid avardavad eesmärke:

“An increasing number of organizations have decided to designate a business purpose that goes beyond pure profit maximization and aims to contribute to the common good. Even organizations previously known for their strong shareholder and profit orientation have announced their commitment to renewed organizational purpose in recent years.” (Jasinenko and Steuber, 2022, p. 2)

Mõtestamine ühiskonna kaudu:

“For example, 181 CEOs of the leading and most powerful US companies signed a statement underlining the need to commit to an organizational purpose that benefits society (Business Roundtable, 2019). Furthermore, Blackrock CEO Larry Fink (2018) stated that ‘to prosper over time, every company must not only deliver financial performance but also show how it makes a positive contribution to society’.” (Jasinenko and Steuber, 2022, p. 2)

Autorid püstitavad hüpoteesi (seda selliselt sõnastamata):

“We propose that focusing on the individual perception of organizational purpose, a construct we name perceived organizational purpose, can help overcome the prior definitional challenges of the construct’s breadth and vagueness and thereby enable the development of an appropriate measurement tool.” (Jasinenko and Steuber, 2022, p. 2)

Hetkeolukord:

“According to recent conceptual research, organizational purpose provides a wide variety of positive outcomes, such as financial value (Birkinshaw et al., 2014; Gartenberg et al., 2019), increased stakeholder trust and legitimacy in challenging times (Hamel, 2009; Hollensbe et al., 2014; Henderson and van den Steen, 2015), and a positive contribution to individuals’ wellbeing (Ellsworth, 2002; Mayer, 2021; van Tuin et al., 2020).” (Jasinenko and Steuber, 2022, p. 4)

Eesmärk ei ole midagi objektiivset, vaid subjektiivselt konstrueeritu arusaam:

“In line with this perspective, ‘[p]urpose is not an objective given but defined as a subjectively construed understanding of the most fundamental objectives of the organization’ (van Knippenberg, 2020, p. 8).” (Jasinenko and Steuber, 2022, p. 4)

Mis teeb eesmärgi tugevaks?

“Accordingly, ‘purpose is only as strong as employees and other stakeholders believe in it’ (van Tuin et al., 2020, p. 2).” (Jasinenko and Steuber, 2022, p. 5)

Lugemishuvi suurendamiseks:

“Moreover, taking the subjective perception of individuals into account allows us to better understand its relationship with important individual-level outcomes, such as employees’ job satisfaction or consumers’ willingness to buy.” (Jasinenko and Steuber, 2022, p. 24)

Jasinenko, A., & Steuber, J. (2022). Perceived Organizational Purpose: Systematic Literature Review, Construct Definition, Measurement and Potential Employee Outcomes. Journal of Management Studies, n/a(n/a), 1–33. https://doi.org/10.1111/joms.12852

Avaliku juhtimise ja poliitikateaduste vahekord on pidevas teisenemises ja seda on ilmselt märganud kõik, kes nende valdkondade erinevate ajastute tekste on lugenud. Siinviidatu leidis oma koha põhjusel, et autor – avaliku juhtimise ja poliitikateaduste suurkuju Donald F. Kettl -, avab uuesti nende kahe (kolme?) valdkonna ühendamisest. Või kas eristamine ongi üldse eristamine või hoopis analüütiline perspektiiv?

Tekst võiks lugemishuvi pakkuda kõikidele inimestele, kuid eriti juhtimise ja valitsemishuvilistele.

Kontekstiks:

“The questions are ironic, because public administration had been one of the five founding fields of the American Political Science Association (APSA), according to the first issue of the American Political Science Review in 1903. There was comparative government (explored through the role of colonial empires); public law (including constitutional law and jurisprudence); international law; political theory; and then public administration.” (Kettl, 2022, p. 1)

Muna ja kana küsimus on lahendatud:

“So not only was public administration part of political science more than a century ago. Political science grew from public administration, with a particular focus on government’s role in transforming policy into results.” (Kettl, 2022, p. 2)

Rõhuasetused tõukasid eri suundadesst:

“After the war, public administrationists sought to bring the practical lessons of government into war into the discipline. At the same time, political science was seeking to make the discipline more scientific. These distinctly different missions provided the important wedge that began driving political science and public administration farther apart.” (Kettl, 2022, p. 3)

Herbert Simoni raamat tõi suunamuutuse:

“Herbert A. Simon’s classic, Administrative Behavior, set the stage for the political science’s transformation (1947). He broke with public administration’s focus on structure and process to look at behavior and decisionmaking. He saw organizations as a complex pattern of relationships among humans, built on communication, information, and incentives.” (Kettl, 2022, p. 3)

Poliitikateaduste eemaldumine:

“The work proved enormously influential and produced one of the two Nobel Prizes won by scholars in political science and public administration (Simon’s in 1978 and Elinor Ostrom’s in 2009, both ironically in economics). This work, along with the rise of the policy sciences (Lasswell et al., 1951), pluralism (Dahl, 1961) and voting studies (Campbell et al., 1960), drove political science in the opposite direction of public administration, which increasingly found itself without a comfortable home in the association it helped to create decades earlier.” (Kettl, 2022, p. 4)

Avaliku juhtimise väljal toimus eraldumine:

“Then a small group of scholars began meeting regularly to focus on public management, distinguished from public administration by its strong focus on how best to improve the outcomes of public programs. Its first meeting in Syracuse had just 15 scholars in attendance. Afterward, there was a consensus that the meeting was useful and that it should be repeated—but not too soon, so as not to weaken attendance. The next meeting was in Madison, with an attendance of 35 (full disclosure: I co-chaired this second conference).” (Kettl, 2022, p. 5)

Juhtimine ja administreerimine evivad erinevaid fookuseid. Kas leppimatult?

“Public management tends to focus on managers, while public administration concentrates on administration structures and processes (although attempting to draw any line between the approaches is a surefire way to start a major intellectual fight). That makes it hard to keep those scholars together.” (Kettl, 2022, p. 5)

Niisiis, lugemishuvi suurendamiseks: kas poliitikateaduste, avaliku juhtimise ja administreerimise eristus on analüütiline?

“These are the issues that link political science’s focus on democracy, policy analysis’s concentration on methods, public management’s attention to leadership, and practitioners’ attention to getting things done. There can be no solution to any of these issues without linking them together and focusing on the fundamental question: How to manage democratic government effectively.” (Kettl, 2022, p. 6)

Kettl, D. F. (2022). Public administration and political science: Can this marriage be saved? Governance, 1–8. https://doi.org/10.1111/gove.12724