MOOC on ilmselt väga paljudele uudishimulikele inimestele tuttav akronüüm. Samas kohtab ehmatavalt sageli ning üllatavatest allikatest tõdemust, et MOOCist ei teata suurt või üldse mitte midagi. Minuni jõudvad praktikad haridusasutustest on üsna reljeefselt pöördumas tagasi ja juurutamas traditsioonilise pedagoogika didaktika ning klassiruumipõhist õpilase-õpetaja suhet. Põhjuste kohta midagi kindlat öelda ei saa, sest neid tuleks enne ikka uurida. Siinviidatu võiks aga motiveerida õppejõude ning valgustada hariduskäsutajaid.


The very nature of Higher Education (HE) is changing, with students (and employers) expecting institutions to expose students to technologies that can facilitate learning, research, business and communication. The fast changes due to the COVID-19 pandemic have been an example of the importance of students developing the skills they need to effectively learn and communicate online (Barber 2021).

MOOCid on kohal:

One of these learning technologies that have become prevalent in HE is Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs). It has been nearly a decade since MOOCs were introduced and they have become a popular mode of online learning. MOOCs now have over 220 million learners and 19.4 thousand courses throughout the world (Shah 2021).

Oluline eeltingimus:

In order to discuss the integration of MOOCs into traditional HE, it is important to understand Blended Learning, which is both simple and complex to define. […] At a simpler level, it refers to the integration of a wide range of online learning elements to in-person learning experiences. At a more complex level, however, there are limitless combinations, possibilities and applications to a great variety of contexts, which means that no two designs are usually the same, and each design contains a different balance of online and in-person components. In reality, educators use a variety of blending models for all sorts of reasons and embed a range of online resources at different levels of integration.

Lugemishuvi suurendamiseks:

Results showed that MOOCs were integrated in a variety of ways, such as having students: (1) use the MOOC teaching materials in and outside classroom time (2) engage in the discussion boards, analyse their arguments and the ones that were put forward by the community; (3) create resources to be shared with other MOOC takers.

de Lima Guedes, K. K., Davis, H. C., & Schulz, J. (2022). Integrating MOOCs into traditional higher education modules: a MOOC-based blend frameworkResearch in Learning Technology30.

Kriisidel on võimekus esile kutsuda uusi kriise, võimestada vanu kriise aga ka tõugata positiivseid ja hangunud arenguid. Viimaste hulka liigitan ka digivõimaluste kasutamise haridussüsteemis. N-ö printerikeskne ehk paberist lähtuv mõtteviis ja traditsioonilise pedagoogika-didaktika domineerimine ei jätagi palju ruumi improvisatsiooniks. Kui ka õppija eelistab näost-näkku koolitusi valdkondades, kus veebiõpe pakuks suuremaid võimalusi mõistmise ja omandamise aspektist, siis on veel keerulisem. Koroonakriis andis tõuke veebiõppe kasutamiseks ning see tõuge on võimas, kuid vähemalt sama võimas tundub olevat tõmme tagasi endistele radadele.

Siinviidatu on vabalevis olev tekst politseihariduse valdkonnast ning puudutab põimõppe (blended learning) võimalusi politseihariduses. Oma koha leidis see tekst peamiselt põhjusel, et politseihariduse valdkonnas ei ole just väga palju kaasaegseid haridustrende puudutavaid uuringuid. Põhjuseid selleks … võib oletada, kuid see ei vii kaugele. Võimalik, et seda võiks uurida.


The move from focusing on traditional ‘training’ that emphasised military style drill, the memorisation of police powers and procedures, and the learning from field tutors on the job (Wood & Tong, 2009) to highlighting the need for ‘education’ which enables officers to face complex challenges of contemporary policing, has been slow but sure in coming.

Erinevate õpivormide tõhusus … ei ole sageli õpivormiga suurt seotud

More recent efforts to evaluate specific police training delivered online have either found little significant difference between outcomes for online training as compared to classroom training (Anderle, 2018) or focused more on effectiveness of the content rather than the delivery method of the training (for e.g. Drew et al., 2021).


Thus, the key research question identified was: How does BL compare with traditional face-to-face learning and online learning?

Põimõppe tähendus siin artiklis:

Amongst the many definitions for ‘blended learning’ (BL), we have adopted Staker and Horn’s (2012, p. 3) version of BL which refers to ‘a formal education programme in which a student learns at least in part through online delivery of content and instruction with some element of student control over time, place, path and/or pace; and at least in part at a supervised brick-and-mortar location away from home.’

Põimõppe arhitektuur:

Lugemishuvi suurendamiseks:

Firstly, it is possible that students might prefer face-to-face over BL and this would affect their satisfaction with BL methods and their evaluation of the BL programme. However, evidence indicates that there is more learning gain over a longer period within a BL environment, perhaps because students can revisit online materials numerous times, if necessary, to consolidate learning over time.

Belur, J., Glasspoole-Bird, H., Bentall, C., & Laufs, J. (2022). What do we know about blended learning to inform police education? A rapid evidence assessment. Police Practice and Research, 1-21.

Avaliku juhtimise õppeprogrammide ja õpetamise ulatuse küsimused ilmutavad ennast erialakirjanduses ikka sagemini. Ka siinses voos võib sellest vihjeid leida (vt nt siit). Siinviidatu leidis oma koha peamiselt põhjusel, et tegeleb avaliku juhtimise valdkonda juba ammu puudutava, kuid õppekavades sageli siiski kaude puudutatava (ja vaikivalt õppejõu hoolde lükatud) avaliku juhtimise välja avardumisega. Ikka enam on vaja tegeleda suhete (relatsioonilisus) ja konteksti mõtestamisega ning traditsioonilise juhtimise valdkonna teadmised on siin aluseelduseks, kuid on täiendatud mitmete, sageli poliitikateadustest tuntud valdkondadega.


Globalization and advances in governance, technology, and culture necessitate the routine reassessment of academic curricula (Farrell, Hatcher, & Diamond, 2022). Though bureaucracy rarely responds at the pace of the private sector, public administration programs are not impervious to change (Farazmand, 2019; Jreisat, 2005).

Tabel-juhtimisest edasi:

The task of public administrators has evolved from the direct delivery of goods and services to the management of complex intersectoral processes requiring distinct global cultural competencies (Baracskay, 2020; Forrer, Kee, & Gabriel, 2007).

Tulevik võib olla tume, kuid ei pruugi:

The discipline of public administration would “be impoverished” if it remains preoccupied with debates of the past and does not actively confront novel burdens through the recognition of its interconnectedness and adjustment of its approach (Kettl, 1999; McDonald, Hall, O’Flynn, & van Thiel, 2022).

Autorid lubavad:

The paper explores the ideal utilization of CPA within MPA curricula and offers corresponding learning objectives and pedagogical tactics.

Mis on võrdlev avalik juhtimine (CPA)?

CPA is a “search for patterns of administrative knowledge and actions worldwide” examining administrative organizations, processes, and ideas (Jreisat, 2018, p. 935). […] These defining features convey the aim of CPA and the scale at which it operates while not wading too deeply into any theoretical or methodological matters.

Erinevad huvid ja tasandid:

Student u standings may also undermine attempts by administrators to globalize public administration through the facilitation of international partnerships and learning opportunities for their students (Devereux & Durning, 2001; Klingner & Washington, 2000).

Kui juhtimispraktikad väliskeskkonna keerukusele ei vasta, siis …

In short, the inability to acknowledge globalization’s opportunities and related technological advancements directly restricts the field’s progression. Such indifference to change denies public administration the potential gains found in the remarkable “laboratories for administrative experimentation” associated with a globally connected world (Heady, 2001, p. 6).

Lugemishuvi suurendamiseks:

In conclusion, this paper seeks to promote CPA as a means of global public administration Globalization and “uncertain times” have led to dramatic changes in public sector operations and the corresponding competencies required to participate (Kettl, 1999; McDonald, 2021). Complex public-private partnerships (PPPs) are increasingly replacing traditional, large-scale public services, and initiatives are increasingly replaced by complex public-private partnerships (PPPs) (Forrer, Kee, & Gabriel, 2007).

Leight, M. D., & Abbott, M. (2022). Globalizing public affairs education: The role of comparative public administration in the MPA classroomJournal of Public Affairs Education, 1-16.

Siinviidatu leidis koha peamiselt põhjusel, et MOOCid on eestikeelses ruumis endiselt alatähtsustatud. Tõsi, minu väite aluseks on tagasihoidlik empiiria ainult nendest avalikest organisatsioonidest, mille praktikad minuni jõuavad ning seetõttu võin olla eksiteel. Minuni jõudnud praktikad kinnitavad, et MOOCidel osalemisest on mõtet rääkida ainult siis, kui on ette näidata “tunnistus” ning ka sel juhul on see pigem midagi, mida ei maksa väga tõsiselt võtta. Kui tunnistust ei ole, siis ei ole ka millestki rääkida. Olen osalenud sadadel MOOCidel, kuid tunnistusi on üksikuid ainuüksi põhjusel, et minu motivatsioon on saada teadmisi ja seda pakuvad paljud platvormid tasuta. Kui aga soovid ka tunnistust, tuleb selle eest maksta. Kas hakkan tööandjalt raha paluma? Võtan ette bürokraatiakadalipu? Tänan, ei.


Research on MOOCs and their audiences places great emphasis on ways of engaging the participants in online activities. For instance attention has been paid to the phenomenon of dropout in MOOCs, even if it is commonly accepted that, in this specific case, it is important to be mindful with one’s definition of dropout (Chaker & Bachelet, 2020), since these massive online courses, by definition, do not obey the classical academic form (Kizilcec, Piech and Schneider, 2013). As Kizilcec and Schneider (2015, p.2) put it: “Many learners interact with these courses in ways that would not be considered ‘successful’ with respect to instructor-defined criteria of success”.


I duced by Csikszentmihalyi in 1975, flow is a state of fulfillment linked to the deep involvement and sense of absorption that people experience when faced with demanding tasks and when they perceive that their skills allow them to meet these challenges. In an educational setting, the state of flow is reached when at no time learning or understanding is interrupted by any concern about how to achieve the task at hand, nor by external disruptive elements. This psychological state is regarded as a form of optimal experience, leading to the – ultimate – autotelic state: to engage in an activity for its own sake (Csikszentmihalyi, 1990).

Autorid lubavad:

In this study, we chose to focus on the flow determinants (namely learning intentions) and flow learning outcomes (MOOC success and dropout), as flow relates to optimal experience, i.e. autotelic experience, during the learning phase (Csikszentmihalyi & Csikszentmihalyi, 1992), and as such is one of the most powerful predictor of individual engagement in learning activities.

MOOCil osalejate eesmärgid:

Similarly, Hew and Cheung (2014) sum up four reasons why learners enroll in a MOOC: to learn about a certain topic, to experience taking a complete online course along with thousands of other people, for the personal challenge and with the motive of earning as many course certificates as possible.

Omandamiseks sooduskontekst:

As flow often occurs when there is a perception of an optimal balance between personal skills and the demands of the task (Heutte et al., 2016b), its framework is then specifically designed to be put into practice in educational settings. […] Building from the definition given from Agarwal and Karahanna (2000), Heutte et al. (2014a, p. 167) defines Cognitive Absorption (CA) as “a state of deep engagement focused on the will to understand with, as without, the use of digital technologies”.

Lugemishuvi suurendamiseks:

Our results show that, to better explain success in a MOOC is to not consider the enrollment intentions and psychological states during the learning process separately but together in the same predictive model. […] These results show that different enrollment intentions can lead to different learning outcomes, both with the autotelic dimension of flow as a mediating effect.

Chaker, R., Bouchet, F., & Bachelet, R. (2022). How do online learning intentions lead to learning outcomes? The mediating effect of the autotelic dimension of flow in a MOOC. Computers in Human Behavior, 107306.

Siinviidatu on vabalevis olev tekst, mis leidis oma koha peamiselt põhjusel, et seab fookusesse õppimise, tagasiside ja kohandumise väliskeskkonnaga. Tagasiside on õppimiseks-arenguks vajalik aluseeldus, kuid ometi suhtutakse sellesse sageli ükskõikselt või jääb sootuks tähelepanuta.

Tekst võiks huvi pakkuda kõikidele turvalisushuvilistele aga ka näiteks organisatsioonidest huvitatutele ja hariduskorraldajatele. Keskne küsimus siit: kuidas saada adekvaatset jooksvat tagasisidet käitumise korrigeerimiseks?


For over three decades, hot spots policing (HSP) has been extensively tested by using “parallel track” comparisons between two (or more) groups of hot spots over long periods of time (90 to 365 days). […] In recent years, however, the parallel track trials have often been replaced by “repeat crossover” designs of HSP evaluations—especially in the UK. In this design, each hot spot serves as its own control.

Jooksva testimise peamine eesmärk:

The primary purpose of test-as-you-go is not to produce published studies for the accumulation of global knowledge about HSP (e.g., Braga et al, 2019); it is to prevent as much crime as possible, on a continuous basis, with local knowledge about the cumulative and most recent outcomes of the effectiveness of HSP in each specific hot spot.

Mille järgi edukust hinnata:

Even leading criminologists (e.g., Nagin & Sampson, 2019) have argued that local crime reduction does not matter if a citywide benefit cannot be proven.


Much of the practice of medicine follows a “test-asyou-go” principle in which doctors first try one treatment (based in part on results of randomized trials), then switch to other treatments if the first choice did not improve the patient’s condition. […] By individualizing high-crime places in which crime does not respond to HSP, police leaders do not have to fix the entire strategic system. All they have to do is look at the facts for any one hot spot, and modify the specific tactics at that location.

Lugemishuvi suurendamiseks ja haridusest-juhtimisest huvitatutele:

A recently published 9-month comparison of two parallel tracks of hot spot patrols (in 3 US cities at once), for example, found that a 5-day course of procedural justice training for hot spots patrol officers reduced both arrests and crime, as well as perceptions by local residents that police used excessive force or harassed local citizens (Weisburd, et al, 2022).

Sherman, L. W. (2022). “Test-As-You-Go” for Hot Spots Policing: Continuous Impact Assessment with Repeat Crossover DesignsCambridge Journal of Evidence-Based Policing, 1-17.

Siinviidatu leidis oma koha peamiselt kahel põhjusel. Esiteks, tekstis rõhutatakse haridust puudutavaid aspekte, mis globaliseerumist ja rahvusvahelistumist käsitlevatest tekstides sageli, kas puuduvad täiesti või on kõrvalrollis. Teiseks, tekst võiks anda inspiratsiooni ka teiste valdkondade huvilistele Eestis (nt politsei), kuna kasutatav argumentatsioon sisaldab mitmeid haridussüsteemi- ja professioonide arenguid toetavaid aspekte.


In recent decades, public administration education has benefited from an increasing awareness of and appreciation for the importance of a global perspective in the training of public servants (see, e.g. Klinger and Washington 2000; Devereux and Durning 2001; Miller-Millesen and Mould 2004; Ryan 2010; Hou et al., 2011; Murphy and Meyer 2012; Jennings and White 2018; Haque and Gunther-Canada 2018; Baracskay 2021).

Autor väidab:

I argue that taking internationalism seriously means treating the study of public administration in domestic and foreign contexts as two halves of the same, holistic, global enterprise.

Klassikud räägivad:

Wilson called for a deliberately comparative approach to the study of public administration, believing that civil servants at home should look abroad to identify best practices. “Of ourselves,” he wrote, “so long as we only know ourselves, we know nothing” (Wilson 1887: p. 220; Cf. Sadler 1900). […] “We can never learn either our own weaknesses or our own virtues by comparing ourselves with ourselves,” he wrote (Wilson 1887: p. 219).

Neli sammast:

I propose four pillars to uphold the idea that an international perspective is still essential for emerging civil servants, whether they are interested in working domestically or for the U.S. foreign policy-making apparatus, an intergovernmental organization, international non-governmental organization, or a foreign government.

Lugemishuvi suurendamiseks:

Even so, the importance of an international perspective in public administration is something that must be reaffirmed on a regular basis. Executed poorly, an internationalized curriculum can be worse than useless; it can propagate ideas that are positively antithetical to contemporary public service values.

White, A. C. (2022). Internationalizing public administration education: Why and how? Teaching Public Administration.

Tagasiside on küll üks selliseid valdkondi, mis võiks kõiki inimesi huvitada. Siinviidatu on vabalevis olev tekst ja üks väheseid eestikeelseid tekste selles voos.

Tagasiside defineerimisest:

Tagasisidet võib defineerida kui tagasisidestaja edastatud teavet tagasiside saaja tegevuse või arusaama(de) kohta (Hattie & Timperley, 2007). See lähenemine tagasisidele on aga viimasel ajal saanud teaduskirjanduses palju kriitikat, kuna selle definitsiooni järgi on tagasiside ainult teabe edastamine.

Teisenevad kontseptsioonid:

Vajadus ümber mõtestada tagasiside olemus, eesmärgid ja protsess on ajendanud tegema uurimusi (Boud & Dawson, 2021; Esterhazy & Damşa, 2019) tagasiside mõistmiseks ning välja töötama õppimist toetava tagasiside (Henderson et al., 2019a; Molloy et al., 2020) ning tagasiside kirjaoskuse (Carless & Boud, 2018; Carless & Winstone, 2020; Chong, 2020; Molloy et al., 2020) kontseptsiooni.

Kes on suurem kasusaaja?

Uues õppimist toetava tagasiside paradigmas, kus õppija on aktiivne pool ning kus tagasiside ei ole ainult ühesuunaline teabeedastamine, defineerivad Henderson jt (2019a) tagasisidet kui „protsesse, kus õppija mõtestab oma tegevusega seotud teavet ning kasutab seda oma õppimise edendamiseks“ (lk 17).

Õppejõudude tagasisidekirjaoskus:

Õppejõu tagasisidekirjaoskust kirjeldades rõhutatakse, et tagasisideprotsess sisaldab endas rohkemat kui lihtsalt üliõpilasele info andmist tema töö kohta (Boud & Dawson, 2021). See hõlmab nii teadmisi, oskusi kui ka hoiakuid, et toetada üliõpilasi tagasiside rakendamisel ning juhendada nende tagasisidekirjaoskuse arengut (Carless & Winstone, 2020).

Aga kui organisatsioonis tagasisidepraktikad … on teistsugused:

Samas on oluline, et õppejõu tegevust toetaks ülikooli kontekst tervikuna: näiteks tagasisidekultuur organisatsioonis, juhendid õppejõududele, käsiraamatud, kogemuste jagamise võimalused, töökoormuse arvestamise süsteem (Henderson et al., 2019).


Peamine vastuolu üliõpilaste ja õppejõudude arusaamades tagasisidest seisneb tagasiside tajumises.

Lugemishuvi suurendamiseks

Siinses uurimuses ilmnes tagasiside uue paradigma ilminguid (emotsioonide olulisus tagasisideprotsessis; dialoogi ning vastastiktagasiside tähtsus õppejõudude arusaamades ning soov tagasisidet rakendada üliõpilaste arusaamades), kuid terviklikku ettekujutust uuest tagasiside paradigmast ilmnes vaid vähestes vastustes.

Hunt, P., & Karm, M. (2022). “Feedback is like a tail wind”: pre-service teachers’ and teacher educators’ perceptions of feedback. Eesti Haridusteaduste Ajakiri. Estonian Journal of Education10 (1), 143-170.

Haridusvaldkonna roll ühiskonnaelu kujundamisel on üks kesksemaid ning selle üle suurt vaidlust ilmselt ei ole. Küll aga on haridusasutused mitte eraldiseisvad, vaid kantud ja osa üldisematest süsteemidest ja allsüsteemidest. Igal juhul on paljud haridusasutused teisenenud pigem mõõdikutest kantud ametiasutusteks. Siinviidatu on üks kasulik vabalevis olev tekst haridusvaldkonnas levinud ja mõnel pool etableerunud mõttekäikude kõrvale.


How they become non-student and nonteacher, and get hold on themselves as student-teacher and teacher-student and become able to learn again. And, not least how they set in motion success and non-success in an educational event.

Kas olemine määrab teadmise või teadmine olemise?

Often, we are preoccupied with knowledge and facts expressed as models and methods of teaching, and we tend to discuss educational content and practices through evidence-based research (see e.g., Darling-Hammond et al., 2020; Davies, 1999; Jin and Jun, 2013).

Piiridest, väga valusalt …

This is also what this paper is about. Acknowledgment of the existence of more knowledges than the established ones.

Artikli väide:

Taking this concern seriously, I argue in this paper that we perhaps need to (re)think official educational organization on the line provided by the swimming instructor, and hence to figure out what nomadic swimming training may do to the style of organization. It is about collaborative teaching-learning situations where various predefined knowledge and novel knowledge affect each other and produce results we cannot be sure of in advance.

Relatsiooniline suhe:

Important to note, though, is that smooth spaces and striated spaces exist only in relation to each other. Smooth spaces are incessantly being translated into spaces of striation, and spaces of striations are incessantly being reversed to a smooth space.

Keerukad protsessid lihtsates küsimustes:

For instance, when the swimming instructor tells Amira to act like she is sleeping, Amira’s response does not echo that of the swimming instructor’s instruction. Rather she is doing her best to keep her head up and avoid to get water in the ears.

Lugemishuvi suurendamiseks:

And, this is not a request for some holistic approach to thinking, or active inclusion in ready-made educational processes. Rather, it is about taking people’s concerns seriously and pay attention to what is emerging in the moment. And, what feels important.

Andersson, Å., Korp, P., & Reinertsen, A. B. (2022). Re-thinking official educational organization towards friction-zones between divergent knowledgesPolicy Futures in Education, 14782103221089466.

Meietamine igapäevakõnepruugis on nii levinud, et sellega tuleb individuaalselt ja teadlikult tegeleda, et mitte langeda ebaadekvaatsete üldistuste lõksu ja minna kaasa romantilise meie-tundega, mille aluste ulatuses võib vähemalt kahelda.

Saan hästi aru, et kontekstis, kus paljudel avalikel organisatsioonidel puudub personalistrateegia (mis ei tähenda, et ülemustel-ametnikel ei ole kujutlusi võimalikest arengutest), võib siinviidatud teksti spetsiifilisus tunduda arusaamatu ja “teoreetiline” (loe: keeruline), siis just nendel põhjustel seda teksti siin jagangi. Ei maksa ju välistada, et on kusagil keegi, kes personaliarenduse küsimustes millelegi sellisele mõtleb.


It has long been understood that a key ingredient in career success is effectively managing workplace relationships. As early as 1936, Dale Carnegie aimed to help his readers develop the skills needed to make friends quickly and easily, thereby increasing their popularity, influence, and earning power (Carnegie, 1936).

Sotsiaalvõrgustiku teooria:

Social network theory identifies informal structures created by the interconnected web of relationships within which we enact our personal and professional lives; these structures provide opportunities and impose constraints (Brass, 2012).

Võrgustikupõhise juhtimise arendamine:

Network-based leadership development helps participants understand the characteristics of effective networks, assess the effectiveness of their own network, and learn strategies to improve (Cullen-Lester et al., 2016). A guiding assumption of these efforts is that developing networking skills enhances individual career success by facilitating the crafting of effective networks, which provide resources including support, sponsorship, and access to relevant information (Cullen-Lester et al., 2016; de Janasz & Forret, 2008; Wolff et al., 2008; Wolff & Moser, 2009).


We seek to answer two research questions: (1) Does an emphasis on personal benefits in a “me-focused” (individually framed) or on collective benefits to the team/ organization in a “we-focused” (collectively framed) program impact participants’ discomfort with strategic networking and their motivation to network? (2) Do individual differences in the way participants relate to others (i.e., the extent to which they endorse an individual or a collective self-concept) and, specifically, the (mis)match between self-concept and the framing of the training impact participants’ discomfort with strategic networking and motivation to network?

Koolituste mõjust:

Assessing the effectiveness of network training is important for understanding which techniques best enable participants to achieve their objectives (i.e., developing and utilizing their professional networks effectively) and revealing the mechanisms by which network training results in proximal and distal outcomes. Kirkpatrick Four Levels Model (Kirkpatrick & Kirkpatrick, 2006) for training assessment is a well-established and popular typology for considering different kinds of training outcomes: Reaction refers to participants’ enjoyment of the training program, learning refers to whether participants demonstrated changes in their knowledge, skills, or attitudes, behavior refers to whether participants exhibited changes in their behavior as a result of the training, and results refer to whether measurable, objective business results improved as a result of the training.

Sotsiaalvõrgustike kasulikkusest:

Historically, the benefits of social networks have been conceptualized into two broad categories: (1) individual benefits such as career advancement and the success resulting from connections to resource-rich others or by occupying brokerage positions within work networks (Burt, 1992; Lin, 1999), and (2) collective benefits such as high levels of trust and support among members of the network that result from network properties such as interconnectedness (Coleman, 1988).

Lugemishuvi suurendamiseks:

Clearly, a mismatch between training frame and self-concept was most detrimental for those who exhibited individual self-concepts. […] HRM professionals designing network training programs should consider whether to tailor their training to match participants’ self-concepts. […] As HRM scholars and practitioners, we must understand the possibility that training may decrease motivation and find ways to address it.

Floyd, T. M., Cullen‐Lester, K. L., Lester, H. F., & Grosser, T. J. Emphasizing “me” or “we”: Training framing and self‐concept in network‐based leadership development. Human Resource Management.

Covid-19 tingimustes õppides-õpetades-töötades tuli õppida või meelde tuletada või arendada uusi oskuseid, millest ehk n-ö kantilik täisealisus võis olla üheks määravaks eduteguriks. Kuid enesedistsipliin, iseõppimise ja ressursside (nt aeg) haldamise oskus ei pruugi kõikidele olla ühtmoodi lihtne. Siinviidatu leidis oma koha põhjusel, et demonstreerib olulisi suhteid erinevate elementide vahel kõrgharidusõppes hakkamasaamiseks. Tekst on vabalevis ja seetõttu pikki kommentaare ei vaja.


Most notably, how we teach and learn has changed from the dominance of face-to face classes to predominantly or fully online learning (i.e., synchronous or asynchronous) or blended learning due to social distancing. Many people have become highly stressed and uneasy due to the radical changes in the educational landscape.

Vabaduse varjukülgedest:

Online learning during COVID-19 has allowed (or forced) students to have more autonomy in terms of how to study, and the time and place to learn. That is, students learn synchronously or asynchronously online at a convenient time and place, including at home. However, autonomy without self-efficacy and self-regulated learning may have negative results, such as procrastination.

Autorid seavad uurimisküsimused:

  1. What are the influences of self-efficacy for learning and resource management on learning engagement?
  1. Does the depression level of students moderate the influences of selfefficacy for learning and resource management on learning engagement?


According to the World Health Association (WHO), depression is defined as a common mental health disorder that often results in a downcast mood, loss of interest, feelings of low self-esteem, disturbed sleep or appetite, low energy, and poor concentration (Garvik, Idsoe, & Bru, 2014).


Self-efficacy related to learning is another psychological factor impacting learning engagement. Self-efficacy is defined as “beliefs in one’s capabilities to organize and execute the courses of action required to produce given attainments” (Bandura, 1997, p. 3). […] In particular, self-efficacy for learning is positively related to self-regulated learning.

Enesereguleeritud õpe:

According to Pintrich (2000), self-regulated learning includes four phases in sequence: (1) forethought, planning, and activation, (2) monitoring, (3) control, and (4) reaction and reflection. […] Self-regulated learning strategies include four aspects: (1) cognition, (2) metacognition, (3) motivation, and (4) resource management such as behavioral control (Barak, Hussein-Farraj, & Dori, 2016; Wolters, Pintrich, & Karabenick, 2005).

Lugemishuvi suurendamiseks:

The findings indicate that self-efficacy positively influenced resource management including time and study environment management as well as effort regulation in both groups. […] Instead, in the depressed group, self-efficacy indirectly i enced learning engagement through resource management. To compensate for some learners’ lower levels of self-efficacy, there should be further support to help students become more competent in self-regulated learning and effectively allocate personal resources when faced with challenging learning situations.

Heo, H., Bonk, C. J., & Doo, M. Y. (2022). Influences of depression, self-efficacy, and resource management on learning engagement in blended learning during COVID-19The Internet and Higher Education, 100856.